, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 129–136

Arum- and Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizas in a mixed pine forest on sand dune soil in Niigata Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan

  • Evelyn Matekwor Ahulu
  • Makoto Nakata
  • Masanori Nonaka
Original Paper


Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are the most widespread mycorrhiza in nature and form two morphologies, Arum- and Paris-type. The determining factors defining the two different morphologies are not well understood. In this study, the distribution of Arum- and Paris-type AM was determined in a mixed pine forest. A total of 35 plant species belonging to 20 families and 32 genera were identified and examined for AM colonization and morphological types. AM morphological types in 14 families were confirmed as follows: Arum-type in Rosaceae, Oleaceae, Lauraceae, Vitaceae and Compositae, Paris-type in Aquifoliaceae, Ulmaceae, Araliaceae, Theaceae, Magnoliaceae, Rubiaceae and Dioscoraceae, and both and/or intermediate types in Caprifoliaceae and Gramineae. Plant families whose AM morphological status was previously unknown were clarified as follows: Polygonaceae and Commelinaceae showed Arum-type morphology; Celastraceae, Menispermaceae and Elaeagnaceae had typical Paris-type morphology. The proportion of Arum-type to Paris-type species decreased in the following order: annuals > perennials > deciduous species > evergreen species, and pioneer group > early successional group > late successional group. Evergreen plants had a higher tendency to form Paris-type AM than annuals, perennials and deciduous plants. The results indicate that environmental changes, such as shade during plant succession, control the distribution of plant growth forms in mixed pine forest and may also play a part in the distribution of Arum- and Paris-type morphology. The identity of the plant seems to strongly influence AM morphology, though control by the fungal genome cannot be ruled out.


Arum/Paris-type Host plant/fungal identity Mixed pine forest Plant growth form Plant succession 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evelyn Matekwor Ahulu
    • 1
  • Makoto Nakata
    • 2
  • Masanori Nonaka
    • 1
  1. 1.Soil Science Laboratory, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of NiigataNiigataJapan
  2. 2.Forest Ecology Laboratory, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of NiigataJapan

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