Sensitivity enhancement and temperature compatibility of graphene piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor

  • Meetu Nag
  • Jaideep Singh
  • Ajay Kumar
  • P. A. Alvi
  • Kulwant SinghEmail author
Technical Paper


MEMS pressure sensor has shown a remarkable change in revenue collection during the year 2018. Due to recent growth in smart microsystem technology for automation systems, demand has grown substantially for sensors. High sensitivity, flexibility, miniaturization and bulk production are some of the key factors of a pressure sensor in achieving new heights in the MEMS market. In this paper, Graphene piezo resistive material has been analysed for pressure sensing elements and compared with Polysilicon in terms of sensitivity and sensor performance degradation at different temperature. MEMS pressure sensors using Polysilicon and Graphene piezo resistive materials were simulated on silicon (100) substrate by COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3a version. The simulation result shows that at room temperature polysilicon pressure sensor performs well with pressure sensitivity of 3.81 mV/psi as well as it is found that graphene pressure sensor also shows better results at room temperature showing a pressure sensitivity of 3.98 mV/psi. As on frequently increasing the temperature it is noticed that polysilicon pressure sensitivity degrades with a factor of 0.64 mV/psi. However, graphene pressure sensor shows very less variation in sensitivity at higher temperature. Although it shows a small increment of 0.02 mV/psi in the pressure sensitivity. This analysis opens the path to utilise the graphene pressure sensor at high temperature.



The Dean R & I, Prof. H. Ravishankar Kamath, Director SEEC, Prof. S.N. Sharan and Director SAMM, Prof. G. L. Sharma are thanked for their constant support and encouragement and first author (Meetu Nag) would like to thank MUJ administration for the financial support in the form of TAship. Additionally, sincere gratitude is extended to the School of Automobile, Mechanical, and Mechatronics (SAMM) of Manipal University Jaipur for providing us access to the COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3a version software as well as their labs for our simulation work.


  1. Bae SH, Lee Y, Sharma BK, Lee HJ, Kim JH, Ahn JH (2013) Graphene-based transparent strain sensor. Carbon N Y 51:236–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhatt K, Rani C, Kapoor A, Kumar P, Sandeep S, Kumar S, Singh R, Tripathi CC (2018) A facile approach to fabricate graphene based piezoresistive strain sensor on paper substrate. Indian J Pure Appl Phys 56(5):361–366Google Scholar
  3. Chen X, Zheng X, Kim J-K, Li X, Lee D-W (2011) Investigation of graphene piezoresistors for use as strain gauge sensors. J Vac Sci Technol B Nanotechnol Microelectron Mater Process Meas Phenom 29(6):06FE01Google Scholar
  4. Lloyd-Hughes J, Jeon TI (2012) A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials. J Infrared Millim Terahertz Waves 33(9):871–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Malhaire C, Barbier D (2003) Design of a polysilicon-on-insulator pressure sensor with original polysilicon layout for harsh environment. Thin Solid Films 427(1–2):362–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Manjunath MS, Nagarjuna N, Uma G, Umapathy M, Nayak MM, Rajanna K (2018) Design, fabrication and testing of reduced graphene oxide strain gauge based pressure sensor with increased sensitivity. Microsyst Technol 24:2969–2981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Meti S, Balavald KB, Sheeparmatti BG (2016) Open access MEMS piezoresistive pressure sensor: a survey. Int J Eng Res Appl 6(4):23–31Google Scholar
  8. Patra S, Choudhary R, Madhuri R, Sharma PK (2018) Graphene-based portable, flexible, and wearable sensing platforms: an emerging trend for health care and biomedical surveillance. Elsevier Inc., AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  9. Qu HW, Yao SY, Zhang R, Mao GR, Zhang WX (1998) Polysilicon piezoresistive pressure sensor and its temperature compensation. In: 1998 5th International conference on solid-state and integrated circuit technology proceedings, pp 914–916Google Scholar
  10. Sarkar T, Kundu MK, Azmain MAA, Khan MAG (2017) Thermal conduction in graphene thin films considering different materials of various shapes. In: 2017 International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Engineering (ECCE). IEEE, pp 369–374Google Scholar
  11. Shi J, Wang L, Dai Z, Zhao L, Du M, Li H, Fang Y (2018) Multiscale hierarchical design of a flexible piezoresistive pressure sensor with high sensitivity and wide linearity range. Small 14(27):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Singh K, Joyce R, Varghese S, Akhtar J (2015) Fabrication of electron beam physical vapor deposited polysilicon piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor. Sens Actuators A Phys 223:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sujit ES, Kusuma N, Hemalatha B (2018) Polysilicon piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor: study of analytical solutions for diaphragm and design and simulation. In: Proceedings of 2017 IEEE international conference communication signal process. ICCSP 2017, vol 2018–Janua, no 1, pp 1606–1610Google Scholar
  14. Tian H, Shu Y, Wang XF, Mohammad MA, Bie Z, Xie QY, Li C, Mi WT, Yang Y, Ren TL (2015) A graphene-based resistive pressure sensor with record-high sensitivity in a wide pressure range. Sci Rep 5:8603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Xiaowei L, Xin L, Wei W, Xilian W, Wei C, Zhenmao L, Maojun F (1998) Computer simulation of polysilicon piezoresistive pressure sensors. In: 1998 5th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology. Proceedings (Cat. No. 98EX105). IEEE, pp 891–894Google Scholar
  16. Zhao J, Zhang GY, Shi DX (2013) Review of graphene-based strain sensors. Chin Phys B 22(5):057701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Zhu S-E, Krishna Ghatkesar M, Zhang C, Janssen GCAM (2013) Graphene based piezoresistive pressure sensor. Appl Phys Lett 102(16):161904CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechatronics EngineeringManipal University JaipurJaipurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringManipal University JaipurJaipurIndia
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsBanasthali VidyapithBanasthaliIndia

Personalised recommendations