Smart ring: a wearable device for hand hygiene compliance monitoring at the point-of-need

  • Xin Zhang
  • Karteek Kadimisetty
  • Kun Yin
  • Carlos Ruiz
  • Michael G. Mauk
  • Changchun Liu
Technical Paper


Hand hygiene compliance is one of the most effective means to prevent the spread of infections and diseases. The centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) recommends washing hands for at least 20 s. However, current hand hygiene compliance monitoring relies on either direct observation or complex electronic compliance monitoring systems. Here, we reported a simple, inexpensive, compact, wearable fluid sensing device, dubbed “smart ring”, for real-time monitoring hand hygiene compliance. The proposed smart ring was prototyped by 3D printing technology and includes an electrochemical fluid sensor, a LED indicator and an embedded electronic board. The ring is capable of detecting hand-washing events and monitoring hand-washing time without need for any expensive electronic monitoring instrument and well-trained personnel. It has been successfully demonstrated to detect a variety of hand-washing agents, such as tap water, soaps, sanitizers, and antimicrobial agents. Such a simple, compact, wearable device could open the door to improve hand hygiene compliance and reduce infection rates in our daily life, especially in hospitals, food businesses and schools.


Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin Zhang
    • 1
  • Karteek Kadimisetty
    • 1
  • Kun Yin
    • 1
  • Carlos Ruiz
    • 1
  • Michael G. Mauk
    • 1
  • Changchun Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied MechanicsUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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