Experimental study of lubricant depletion induced by pulsed laser irradiation heating in heat-assisted magnetic recording

  • Norio TagawaEmail author
  • Hiroshi Tani
  • Yuki Uesaraie
  • Shinji Koganezawa
  • Renguo Lu
Technical Paper


In this study, we experimentally investigate the lubricant depletion as well as the temperature distribution caused by pulsed laser irradiation heating and discuss the fundamental characteristics. It was determined that the maximum temperature increased as the duty ratio increased. However, the rate of the maximum temperature change due to the duty ratio was comparatively small. Therefore, it was suggested that the maximum temperature was almost constant when the duty ratio was more than 50% under experimental conditions. The thermal distribution or the thermal gradient also depended on the duty ratio and increased as this ratio decreased. It was also determined that the depletion of the lubricant film due to pulsed laser heating was smaller than that due to continuous laser heating. Moreover, it depended on the duty ratio and increased as the duty ratio increased. In addition, it depended on the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the temperature distribution due to pulsed laser irradiation heating and increased as the FWHM is increased. Therefore, it is also suggested that the lubricant depletion issue will not be as critical in actual heat-assisted magnetic recording system because the FWHM would be very small under practical circumstances.



This work was supported in part by a Kansai University Grant-in-Aid for the Promotion and Upgrading of Education and Research 2016, and MEXT KAKENHI Grant Number 15H02216.


  1. Challener WA, Peng C, Itagi AV, Karns D, Peng W, Peng Y, Yang XM, Zhu X, Gokemeijer NJ, Hsia YT, Ju G, Rottmayer RE, Seigler MA, Gage EC (2009) Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer. Nat Photonics 3(4):220–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kasai PH, Tang WT, Wheeler P (1991) Degradation of perfluoropolyethers catalyzed by aluminum oxide. Appl Surf Sci 51:201–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Liu J, Stirniman MJ, Gui J (2003) Catalytic decomposition of perfluoropolyether lubricants. IEEE Trans Magn 39:749–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Marchon B, Olsen T (2009) Magnetic spacing trends: from LMR to PMR and beyond. IEEE Trans Magn 45(10):3608–3611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Mate CM, Dai Q, Payne RN, Knigge BE, Baumgart P (2005) Will the numbers add up for sub-7-nm magnetic spacings? Future metrology issues for disk drive lubricants, overcoats, and topographies. IEEE Trans Magn 41(2):626–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Seo YW, Rosenkranz A, Talke FE (2018) Molecular dynamics study of lubricant depletion by pulsed laser heating. Appl Surf Sci 440:73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Tagawa N, Tani H (2011) Lubricant depletion characteristics induced by rapid laser heating in thermally assisted magnetic recording. IEEE Trans Magn 47(1):105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Tagawa N, Andoh H, Tani H (2009a) Study on lubricant depletion induced by laser heating in thermally assisted magnetic recording systems: Effect of lubricant thickness and bonding ratio. Tribol Lett 37(2):411–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Tagawa N, Kakitani R, Tani H, Iketani N, Nakano I (2009b) Study of lubricant depletion induced by laser heating in thermally assisted magnetic recording systems, effect of lubricant film materials. IEEE Trans Magn 45(2):877–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Tagawa N, Tani H, Ueda K (2011) Experimental investigation of local temperature increase in disk surfaces of hard disk drives due to laser heating during thermally assisted magnetic recording. Tribol Lett 44(1):81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Tagawa N, Miki T, Tani H (2012) Depletion of monolayer liquid lubricant films induced by laser heating in thermally assisted magnetic recording. Tribol Lett 47(2):123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Tani H, Koganezawa S, Tagawa N (2016) Thermal behavior of frictional properties on ultra-thin perfluoropolyether lubricant film. Tribol Online 11(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Waltman RJ, Deng H, Wang GJ, Zhu H, Tyndall GW (2010) The effect of PFPE film thickness and molecular polarity on the pick-up of disk lubricant by a low-flying slider. Trib Lett 39:211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wang Y, Maletzky T, Jin EX, Zhou D, Smyth J, Dovek M (2013) Pulsed thermally assisted magnetic recording. IEEE Trans Magn 49(2):739–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wang Y, Wei X, Tsui KL, Chow TWS (2014) Tribological degradation of head–disk interface in hard disk drives under accelerated wear condition. IEEE Trans Magn 50(3):3301007Google Scholar
  16. Xiong S, Smith R, Wang N, Li D, Schreck E, Canchi S, Dai Q (2016) Transient thermal response of the media in heat assisted magnetic recording. In: Proceedings of the ASME 2016 conference on information storage and processing systems ISPS2016, ISPS2016-9528Google Scholar
  17. Yang Y, Li X, Stirniman M, Yan X, Huang F, Zavaliche F, Wang H, Huang J, Tang H, Jones PM, Kiely JD, Brand JI (2015) Head-disk lubricant transfer and deposition during heat-assisted magnetic recording write operations. IEEE Trans Magn 51(11):3300604Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKansai UniversitySuitaJapan

Personalised recommendations