Microsystem Technologies

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 621–631 | Cite as

Grey optimization of injection molding processing of plastic optical lens based on joint consideration of aberration and birefringence effects

  • Chao-Ming LinEmail author
  • Yu-Wen Chen
Technical Paper


The optical performance of injection molded plastic lenses is seriously degraded by the warpage and residual stress induced during the molding process. In particular, warpage produces optical aberrations, while residual stress causes birefringence. Consequently, it is essential that the processing parameters used in the molding process are properly assigned. Accordingly, the present study first applies the robust Taguchi design methodology to determine the processing conditions which independently minimize the warpage and residual stress of the molded lens, respectively. The two sets of parameters are then further analyzed using a grey relational analysis model to establish the processing parameters which simultaneously minimize both the warpage and the residual stress. The simulation results confirm that the joint optimization process yields an effective improvement in the quality of the injection molded lens.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided to this study by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan, ROC, under Grant numbers MOST 104-2815-C-415-068-E and MOST 106-2221-E-415-006.


  1. Aben H, Guillermet C (1993) Photoelasticity of glass. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bociaga E, Jaruga T, Lubczynska K, Gnatowski A (2010) Warpage of injection moulded parts as the result of mould temperature difference. Arch Mater Sci Eng 44:28–34Google Scholar
  3. Chen Y, Allen YY, Su L, Klocke F, Pongs G (2008) Numerical simulation and experimental study of residual stresses in compression molding of precision glass optical components. J Manuf Sci Eng 130(5):051012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crawford RJ (1985) Plastics engineering. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. Dereniak E, Dereniak T (2008) Geometrical and trigonometric optics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. Fan B, Kazmer DO, Bushko WC, Theriault RP, Poslinski AJ (2004) Birefringence prediction of optical media. Polym Eng Sci 44:814–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hsia KH, Wu JH (1998) A study on the data preprocessing in grey relation analysis. J Chin Grey Syst 1:47–54Google Scholar
  8. Julong Deng (1982) Control problems of grey systems. Syst Control Lett 5:288–294MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kennedy PK (2008) Practical and scientific aspects of injection molding simulation. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, EindhovenGoogle Scholar
  10. Lee YB, Kwon TH, Yoon K (2002) Numerical prediction of residual stresses and birefringence in injection/compression molded center-gated disk. Part I: basic modeling and results for injection molding. Polym Eng Sci 42:2246–2272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liao SJ, Chang DY, Chen HJ, Tsou LS, Ho JR, Yau HT, Hsieh WH, Wang JT, Su YC (2004) Optimal process conditions of shrinkage and warpage of thin-wall parts. Polym Eng Sci 44:917–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lin CM, Tan CM, Wang CK (2013) Gate design optimization in the injection molding of the optical lens. Optoelectron Adv Mater Rapid Commun 7:580–584Google Scholar
  13. Rao RS, Prakasham RS, Prasad KK, Rajesham S, Sarma PN, Rao LV (2004) Xylitol production by Candida sp.: parameter optimization using Taguchi approach. Process Biochem 39:951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rao RS, Kumar CG, Prakasham RS, Hobbs PJ (2008) The Taguchi methodology as a statistical tool for biotechnological applications: a critical appraisal. J Biotechnol 3:510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rosa JL, Robin A, Silva MB, Baldan CA, Peres MP (2009) Electrodeposition of copper on titanium wires: Taguchi experimental design approach. J Mater Process Technol 209:1181–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rosato DV (1986) Injection moulding handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Shayfull Z, Ghazali MF, Azaman M, Nasir SM, Faris NA (2010) Effect of differences core and cavity temperature on injection molded part and reducing the warpage by Taguchi method. Int J Eng Technol 10:125–132Google Scholar
  18. Shoemaker J (2006) Moldflow design guide: a resource for plastics engineers. Hanser, MunichCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shyu GD, Isayyev AI, Lee HS (2003) Numerical simulation of flow-induced birefringence in injection molded disk. Jpn Korea Plast Process Jt Semin 4:41–47Google Scholar
  20. Tang SH, Tan YJ, Sapuan SM, Sulaiman S, Ismail N, Samin R (2007) The use of Taguchi method in the design of plastic injection mould for reducing warpage. J Mater Process Technol 182:418–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Energy EngineeringNational Chiayi UniversityChia-YiTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations