Microsystem Technologies

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 295–306 | Cite as

Design and modeling of mode-conversion in ring resonator and its application in all-optical switching

  • Gaurav Kumar Bharti
  • Jayanta Kumar RakshitEmail author
  • Soumya Sanghamitra Pal
Technical Paper


The present paper describes the mode conversion of the optical signal using single waveguide coupled silicon micro-ring resonator (MRR). The mode conversion occurs between quasi-TM and the quasi-TE mode at the through port output with the application of the suitable optical pump power. The modeling of mode-conversion using ring resonator is performed through MATLAB as well as by finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulation and further used to perform the all-optical switch. The refractive index contrast, height to width ratio of the waveguide and the choice of suitable wavelength and power for optical pumping and source are responsible for mode-conversion in the ring resonator. The application of mode-conversion to design all-optical switch in MRR is also included in the paper. Mode-conversion in terms of electric field intensity at a resonant wavelength of around 1.53 μm occurs and is utilized to design all-optical switch. The results obtained from both MATLAB and FDTD justify each other and validate the proposed concept. Some ‘Figure of merits’ and ‘Spectral parameters’ are calculated in the report to analyze the performance of the design.



The authors of the paper want to thank Prof. Qingzhong Huang, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China for his valuable discussion and comments.


  1. Bharti GK, Rakshit JK (2018) Design of all-optical JK, SR and T flip-flops using micro-ring resonator-based optical switch. Photonics Netw Commun 35:381–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhola B, Nosovitskiy P, Mahalingam H, Steier WH (2009) Sol-gel-based integrated optical microring resonator humidity sensor. IEEE Sens J 9:740–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bianucci P, Fietz CR, Robertson JW, Shvets G, Shih CK (2007) Polarization conversion in a silica microsphere. Opt Express 15:7000–7005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chremmos I et al (eds) (2010) Photonic microresonator research and applications. Springer Series in Optical Sciences, vol 156, chap 2Google Scholar
  5. Cusmai G, Morichetti F, Rosotti P, Costa R, Melloni A (2005) Circuit-oriented modeling of ring resonator. Opt Quant Electron 37:343–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dai D, Tang Y, Bowers J (2012) Mode conversion in tapered submicron silicon ridge optical waveguides. Opt Express 20:13425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dai J et al (2015) All-optical logic operation of polarized light signals in highly nonlinear silicon hybrid plasmonic microring resonators. Appl Opt 54:4471–4477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dumon P et al (2004) Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography. IEEE Photonics Technol Lett 16:1328–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferrera M, Duchesne D, Razzari L, Peccianti M, Morandotti R, Cheben P, Moss DJ (2009) Low power four wave mixing in an integrated, micro-ring resonator with Q = 1.2 million. Opt Express 17:14098–14103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fietz C, Shvets G (2007) Non-linear polarization conversion using microring resonators. Opt Lett 32:1683–1685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Heebner JE (2003) Nonlinear optical whispering gallery microresonators for photonics. The University of Rochester, Institute of Optics, RochesterGoogle Scholar
  12. Jinno M, Matsumoto T (1992) Nonlinear Sagnac interferometer switch and its applications. IEEE J Quantum Electron 28:875–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lamouroux B, Prade B, Orszag A (1982) Polarization effect in optical fiber ring resonators. Opt Lett 7:391–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li J, Li L, Jin L, Li C (2006) All-optical switch and limiter based on nonlinear polarization in Mach-Zehnder interferometer coupled with a polarization-maintaining fiber ring-resonator. Opt Commun 260:318–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lin Q, Painter OJ, Agrawal GP (2007) Non-linear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and application. Opt Express 15:16604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Little BE, Chu ST (2000) Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators. IEEE Photonics Technol Lett 12:401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu GJ et al (2003) Nonlinear optical switching matrix. Opt Lett 28:1347–1349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lui WW, Xu CL, Hirono T, Yokoyama K, Huang WP (1998a) Full-vectorial wave propagation in semiconductor optical bending waveguides and equivalent straight waveguide approximation. J Light Wave Technol 16:910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lui WW, Hirano T, Yokoyama K, Huang WP (1998b) Polarization rotation in semiconductor in bending waveguides. J Light Wave Technol 16:929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lumerical FDTD solutions [Online]-
  21. Marcatili EAJ (1969) Bends in optical dielectric guides. Bell Syst Technol J 48:2103–2132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Melloni A, Martinelli M (2002) Synthesis of direct coupled resonators bandpass filters for WDM systems. J Lightwave Technol 20:296–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Melloni A, Morichetti F, Martinelli M (2004) Polarization conversion in ring resonator phase shifters. Opt Lett 29:2785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mookherjea S, Melloni A (2008) Microring resonators in integrated opticsGoogle Scholar
  25. Nayar BK et al (1991) All-optical switching in a 200-m twin-core fiber nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer. Opt Lett 16:408–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pascher W, Pregla R (1993) Vectorial analysis of bends in optical strip waveguides by the method of lines. Radio Sci 28:1229–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rabus DG (2007) Integrated ring resonators. Springer, ISBN: 978-3-540-68786-3, XVIGoogle Scholar
  28. Rakshit JK, Roy JN (2014) Micro ring resonator based all optical reconfigurable logic operations. Opt Commun 321:38–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rakshit JK, Roy JN (2016a) All-optical ultrafast switching in a silicon microring resonator and its application to design multiplexer/demultiplexer, adder/subtractor and comparator circuit. Opt Appl 46:517–539Google Scholar
  30. Rakshit JK, Roy JN (2016b) Silicon micro-ring resonator based all-optical digital to analog converter. Photonic Netw Commun 34:84–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rakshit JK, Roy JN, Chattopadhyay T (2013a) Design of ring resonator-basedall-optical switch for logic and arithmetic operation-A theoretical study. Optik 124:6048–6057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rakshit JK, Chottopadhyay T, Roy JN (2013b) Design of microring resonator based all-optical adder/subtractor. Theor Appl Phys 1:32–43Google Scholar
  33. Sanati P, Afroozeh A, Amiri I, Ali J, Chu LS (2014) Femtosecond pulse generation using microring resonators for eye nanosurgery. Nanosci Nanotechnol Lett 6:221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sanders GA, Smith RB, Rouse GF (1989) Novel polarization-rotating fiber resonator for rotation sensing applications. Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors SPIE 1169Google Scholar
  35. Shani Y et al (1991) Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides. Appl Phys Lett 59:1278–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Urquhart P (1988) Compound optical-fiber-based resonators. OSA A 5(6):803–812Google Scholar
  37. Van V, Absil PP, Hryniewicz JV, Ho PT (2001) Propagation loss in GaAs-AlGaAs microring resonators: measurements and model. J Lightwave Technol 19:1734–1739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang W, Xia J (2011) The characterizations of polarization in resonator integrated optic gyroscope. Opt Quant Electron 42:313–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wang Z, Lu Q, Wang Y, Xia J, Huang Q (2017) Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in a compact silicon ring-bus-ring-bus system. Opt Express 25:14368–14377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Xu HH, Huang QZ, Li YT (2010) Sub-nanosecond optical switch based on silicon racetrack resonator. Chin Phys B 19:084210CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaurav Kumar Bharti
    • 1
  • Jayanta Kumar Rakshit
    • 1
    Email author
  • Soumya Sanghamitra Pal
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Instrumentation EngineeringNIT AgartalaAgartalaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringNIT AgartalaAgartalaIndia

Personalised recommendations