Advertisement

Microsystem Technologies

, Volume 24, Issue 8, pp 3417–3424 | Cite as

Development of tube flow sensor by using film transfer technology and its application to in situ breathing and surface image evaluation in airways

  • Chiaki Okihara
  • Yoshihiro HasegawaEmail author
  • Miyoko Matsushima
  • Tsutomu Kawabe
  • Mitsuhiro Shikida
Technical Paper

Abstract

A micro-electro-mechanical systems flow sensor was integrated onto an optical fiberscope to enable in situ breathing and surface image evaluations in small airways. The tube flow sensor was developed to be easily attached to an optical fiberscope. Firstly, two heaters working as flow rate sensors were formed on thin film by using a lift-off process. Then the fabricated film sensor was assembled onto the outer tube surface by film transfer technology. The flow rate vs. sensor output characteristics under both the forward and backward flow conditions were confirmed to be coincident. Thanks to thermal capacity reduction by 1.0 μm-thickness film substrate and thermal isolation by cavity formation around the heaters, a short response time of less than 20 ms was obtained. This was sufficient to follow the temporal airflow rate change during breathing. The fabricated tube flow sensor was attached to the outside of a fiberscope 1.6 mm in diameter, and it was inserted into a tube that was connected to the airway of a rat. An optical image of the rat was captured, and its breathing airflow rate was successfully detected.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26286034, Japan.

References

  1. Ashauer M, Glosch H, Hedrich F, Hey N, Sandmaier H, Lang W (1999) Thermal flow sensor for liquids and gases based on combinations of two principle. Sens Actuators A 73:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Campbell PK, Jones KE, Huber RJ, Horch KW, Normann RA (1991) A silicon-based three dimensional neural interface: manufacturing process for an intracortical electrode array. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 38(8):758–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Choi W, Rubtsov V, Kim CJ (2011) Pneumatically developed net system for endoscopic removal of foreign object. In: Proceedings of the micro electro mechanical systems conference, Cancun, pp 17–20Google Scholar
  4. Esashi M, Matsuo T (1975) Biomedical cation sensor using field effect of semiconductor. J Jpn Soc Appl Phys 44:339–343Google Scholar
  5. Esashi M, Matsuo T (1978) Integrated micro multi ion sensor using field effect of semiconductor. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 25:184–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gingerich MD, Hetke JF, Anderson DJ, Wise KD (2001) A 256-site 3D CMOS microelectrode array for multipoint stimulation and recording in the central nervous system. In: The 11th international conference on solid-state sensors and actuators, Munich, pp 416–419Google Scholar
  7. Goto S, Matsunaga T, Totsu K, Makishi W, Esashi M, Haga Y (2005) Photolithography on cylindrical substrates for realization of high-functional tube-shaped micro-tools. In: Proceedings of 22nd sensor symposium, pp 112–115Google Scholar
  8. Harada N, Hasegawa Y, Ono R, Matsushima M, Kawabe T, Shikida M (2017) Characterization of basket-forceps-type micro-flow-sensor for breathing measurements in small airway. Microsyst Technol 23(12):5397–5406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Katsumata T, Haga Y, Minami K, Esashi M (2000) Micromachined 125 μm diameter ultra miniature fiber-optic pressure sensor for catheter. IEE Trans Jpn 120-E(2):58–63Google Scholar
  10. King LV (1914) On the convection of heat from small cylinders in a stream of fluid: determination of the convection constants of small platinum wires with applications to hot-wire anemometry. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser A 214:373–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kusuda S, Sawano S, Konishi S (2007) Fluid-resistive bending sensor having perfect compatibility with flexible pneumatic balloon actuator. In: Proceedings of the micro electro mechanical systems conference, Kobe, pp 615–618Google Scholar
  12. Leonardi M, Leuenberger P, Bertrand D, Bertsch A, Renaud Ph (2003) A soft contact lens with a MEMS strain gage embedded for intraocular pressure monitoring. In: The 12th international conference on solid state sensors, actuators and microsystems, Boston, pp 1043–1046Google Scholar
  13. Matsunaga T, Hino R, Makishi W, Esashi M, Haga Y (2011) Electromagnetically driven ultra-miniature single fiber scanner for high-resolution endoscopy fabricated on cylindrical substrates using MEMS process. In: Proceedings of the micro electro mechanical systems conference, Hong Kong, pp 999–1002Google Scholar
  14. Meijer GCM, Herwaarden AW (1994) Thermal sensors. Institute of Physics Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Najafi K, Wise KD, Mochizuki T (1985) A high-yield IC-compatible multichannel recording array. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 32:1206–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Okihara C, Hasegawa Y, Shikida M, Matsushima M, Kawabe T (2016) Development of cylinder hollow structure with flow sensor by film transfer technology. In: Proceedings of IEEE sensors, Orland, p A-6-213Google Scholar
  17. Okihara C, Hasegawa Y, Matsushima M, Kawabe T, Shikida M (2017) Integration of flow sensor and optical fiberscope for in situ breathing and surface image evaluations in small airway. In: The 19th international conference on solid-state sensors, actuators and microsystems, Kaohsiung, pp 1692–1695Google Scholar
  18. Shikida M, Naito J, Yokota T, Kawabe T, Hayashi Y, Sato K (2009) A catheter-type flow sensor for measurement of aspirated- and inspired-air characteristics in bronchial region. J Micromech Microeng 19:105027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shikida M, Yokota T, Naito J, Sato K (2010a) Fabrication of a stent-type thermal flow sensor for measuring nasal respiration. J Micromech Microeng 20:055029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shikida M, Yokota T, Kawabe T, Funaki T, Matsushima M, Iwai S, Matsunaga N, Sato K (2010b) Characteristics of an optimized catheter-type thermal flow sensor for measuring reciprocating airflows in bronchial pathways. J Micromech Microeng 20:125030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shikida M, Yoshikawa K, Matsuyama T, Yamazaki Y, Matsushima M, Kawabe T (2014a) Catheter flow sensor with temperature compensation for tracheal intubation tube system. Sens Actuators A 215:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shikida M, Shikano T, Matsuyama T, Yamazaki Y, Matsushima M, Kawabe T (2014b) Micromachined catheter flow sensor and its applications in breathing measurements in animal experiments. Microsyst Technol 20:505–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Takahata K, DeHennis A, Wise KD, Gianchandani YB (2004) A wireless microsensor for monitoring flow and pressure in a blood vessel utilizing dual-inductor antenna stent and two pressure sensors. In: Proceedings of the micro electro mechanical systems conference, Maastricht, pp 216–219Google Scholar
  24. Watanabe Y, Maeda M, Yaji N, Nakamura R, Iseki H, Yamato M, Okano T, Hori S, Konishi S (2007) Small, soft, and safe microactuator for retinal pigment epithelium transplantation. In: Proceedings of the micro electro mechanical systems conference, Kobe, pp 659–662Google Scholar
  25. Yao H, Afanasiev A, Lähaesmäki I, Parvis BA (2011) A dual microscale glucose sensor on a contact lens, tested in conditions mimicking the eye. In: Proceedings of micro electro mechanical systems conference, Cancun, pp 25–27Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Information SciencesHiroshima City UniversityHiroshimaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Medical TechnologyNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan

Personalised recommendations