Microsystem Technologies

, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 1003–1013 | Cite as

Analytical methods used for low temperature Cu–Cu wafer bonding process evaluation

  • B. RebhanEmail author
  • S. Tollabimazraehno
  • G. Hesser
  • V. Dragoi
Technical Paper


Metal wafer bonding is a well-established technology in the semiconductor industry. This technology gains more and more importance due to increasing market demands, particularly for three-dimensional integrated circuits and integration of complementary metal oxide semiconductor and microelectromechanical systems devices used in consumer electronics. Cu–Cu wafer bonding at low temperature is a very attractive process which can be used for both mechanical joints and electrical interconnects in wafer-level processes. In order to facilitate a permanent Cu–Cu bond at low temperature—in contrast to a typical ~400 °C Cu–Cu bonding temperature—the effect of material properties and bonding parameters has to be understood well. Therefore a comprehensive characterization including both, namely surface and interface analysis before and after wafer bonding of non-patterned Cu layers, respectively, is required in order to optimize the Cu–Cu metal wafer bonding process. Low temperature Cu–Cu bonding, namely ≤200 °C, of ~500 nm sputter-deposited Cu films was demonstrated and characterized. Selected analytical methods, such as transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and electron backscatter diffraction, and their corresponding specimen preparation techniques for microstructure and elemental composition evaluation are introduced. Experimental results of surfaces and interfaces investigation (materials properties with high impact on their bonding behavior), such as the (i) surface roughness, (ii) Cu native oxide, (iii) Cu (surface) purity and (iv) Cu grain size, as well as the influence of the (vi) bonding temperature are presented.


Auger Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Mechanical Polishing Wafer Bonding Gatan Method Wafer Pair 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Avache J, Boumendi J, Beaunier L, Ehret G, Laub D (2010) Sample preparation handbook for transmission electron microscopy: techniques. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baudin F, Di Cioccio L, Moriceau H, Delaye V, Brechet Y (2011) Presented at WaferBond ConfGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen K, Tan C (2011) IET Comput Digit Tech 5:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen K, Tan C, Fan A, Reif R (2004) Electrochem Solid State Lett 7:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Di Cioccio L, Baudin F, Gergaud P, Delaye V, Jouneau PJ, Rieutord F, Signamarcheixc T (2014) ECS Trans 64:339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gondcharton P, Imbert B, Benaissa L, Verdier M (2014) ECS Trans 64:357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hofmann S (2000) Surf Interface Anal 30:228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Istratova A, Weberb E (2002) J Electrochem Soc 149:1Google Scholar
  9. Kim S, Yu J (2010) J Appl Phy 108:083532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kwakman L, Franz G, Taklo MMV, Klumpp A, Ramm P (2011) AIP Conf Proc:1395Google Scholar
  11. Liu C, Chen J, Chuang Y, Ke L, Wang S (2007) Appl Phys Lett 90:112114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Moriceau H, Rieutord F, Fournel F, Imbert B, DiCioccio L, Baudin F, Rauer C, Morales C (2012) Presented at LTWB3D ConfGoogle Scholar
  13. Mounier E, Baron J, Pizzagalli A (2012) Presented at LTWB3D ConfGoogle Scholar
  14. Pabo E, Rebhan B, Matthias T, Dragoi V (2012) Presented at COMSGoogle Scholar
  15. Rebhan B, Hesser G, Duchoslav J, Dragoi V, Wimplinger M, Hingerl K (2012) ECS Trans 50:139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Stegmann H, Dömer H, Cai H, Rosenkranz R, Zschech E (2011) Proc. of the 2011 SCD:4Google Scholar
  17. Takahashi H, Sato A, Takakura M, Mori N, Boerder J, Knoll W, Critchell J (2006) Microchim Acta 155:295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wagner CD, Riggs WM, Davis LE, Moulder JF, Muilenberg GE (1979) Handbook of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Perkin Elmer, WalthamGoogle Scholar
  19. Yeh C-F, Hsiao C-W, Lee W-S (2003) Appl Surf Sci 216:46CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Rebhan
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Tollabimazraehno
    • 2
    • 3
  • G. Hesser
    • 2
  • V. Dragoi
    • 1
  1. 1.EV GroupSt. Florian am InnAustria
  2. 2.Center of Surface- and NanoanalyticsJohannes Kepler UniversityLinzAustria
  3. 3.Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microscopic and Spectroscopic Material CharacterizationLinzAustria

Personalised recommendations