Microsystem Technologies

, Volume 21, Issue 8, pp 1677–1690 | Cite as

Characterisation of demoulding parameters in micro-injection moulding

  • C. A. Griffiths
  • G. Tosello
  • S. S. Dimov
  • S. G. Scholz
  • A. Rees
  • B. Whiteside
Technical Paper


Condition monitoring of micro injection moulding is an effective way of understanding the processing effects of variable parameter settings. This paper reports an experimental study that investigates the characteristics of the demoulding behaviour in micro injection moulding (µ-IM) with a focus on the process factors that affect parts’ quality. Using a Cyclic Olefin Copolyme (COC) microfluidics demonstrator, the demoulding performance was studied as a function of four process parameters (melt temperature, mould temperature, holding pressure and injection speed), employing the design of experiment approach. The results provide empirical evidences on the effect that processing parameters have on demoulding conditions in µ-IM, and identifies combinations of parameters that can be used to achieve the optimal processing conditions in regards to demoulding behaviour of micro parts. It was concluded that there was a direct correlation between the applied pressure during part filling, holding phases and the demoulding characteristic factors of the µ-IM cycle such as ejection force, integral and time.


Injection Moulding Mould Temperature Ejection Time Cavity Pressure Injection Speed 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Analysis of variance


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene


Cyclic olefin copolymer


Measuring pin diameter


Design of experiments


Injection moulding


Orthogonal array




Pressure volume temperature

List of symbols


Demoulding force

\( {\text{F}}_{{\rm max} }^{\text{e}} \)

Maximum demoulding force

\( {\text{F}}_{\text{work}}^{\text{e}} \)

Demoulding force work

\( {\text{F}}_{\text{rate}}^{\text{e}} \)

Demoulding force rate


Holding pressure


Signal to noise ratio


Surface to volume ratio




Melt/barrel temperature


Holding pressure time


Mould/tool temperature


Glass transition temperature


Injection speed


Time step of data acquisition system


Relative effect


Standard deviation


Micro-injection moulding



The research reported in this paper was funded by the FP7 programmes “Converging technologies for micro systems manufacturing” (COTECH, Grant agreement CP-IP 214491-2,, “Integrating European research infrastructures for the micro-nano fabrication of functional structures and devices out of a knowledge-based multimaterials’ repertoire” (EUMINAfab, Grant agreement FP7-226460,, “High throughput integrated technologies for multimaterial functional Micro Components” (HINMICO, Grant agreement 609110,, the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/F056745/1) and the MicroBridge programme supported by Welsh Assembly Government and the UK Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. A. Griffiths
    • 1
  • G. Tosello
    • 2
  • S. S. Dimov
    • 3
  • S. G. Scholz
    • 4
  • A. Rees
    • 5
  • B. Whiteside
    • 6
  1. 1.School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil EngineeringThe University of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringTechnical University of DenmarkKongens LyngbyDenmark
  3. 3.School of Mechanical EngineeringBirmingham UniversityBirminghamUK
  4. 4.Institute for Applied Computer ScienceKarlsruhe Institute of TechnologyKarlsruheGermany
  5. 5.College of EngineeringSwansea UniversitySwanseaUK
  6. 6.Centre for Polymer Micro and Nano TechnologyUniversity of BradfordBradfordUK

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