Electrodeposition of copper into high aspect ratio PCB micro-via using megasonic agitation
This paper presents the use of micro-particle imaging velocimetry (micro-PIV) to analyse fluid flow and hence ion replenishment in PCB micro-via during the electroplating process. The cross section of a PCB via is fabricated in PMMA to allow optical access to the sample. Fluid flow within two 1:1 aspect ratio blind micro-vias, one with straight side walls and the other with tapered side walls were compared. Flow is also analysed in a 1:1 aspect ratio through via. Flow rates measured using micro-PIV are used to validate simulated flow models. The results show that there are increased flow rates within the blind via with tapered side walls. This goes some way to explaining the improved electroplating results obtained in industry when tapered vias are used. Initial experimental results using megasonic streaming to remove bubbles from blind micro-via and promote ion transportation within high aspect ratio PCB micro-via to enhance electrodeposition are also reported.
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