Microsystem Technologies

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 103–112 | Cite as

Laser micro-welding of aluminum and copper with and without tin foil alloy

  • Mohammad M. Hailat
  • Ahsan Mian
  • Zariff A. Chaudhury
  • Golam NewazEmail author
  • Rahul Patwa
  • Hans J. Herfurth
Technical Paper


In this paper continuous laser welding of two dissimilar materials, aluminum and copper, was investigated. The aluminum and the copper utilized were Al3003-H14 and Cu110-H00, respectively. Two different sets of samples were laser welded; one in which a filler material, tin foil alloy (S-bond 220), was sandwiched between the aluminum and the copper and another set in which the aluminum and copper were directly welded without any filler. The foil alloy was utilized to enhance the compatibility of the two metals; aluminum and copper, reducing the brittleness of the intermetallic compound that may form and, subsequently, enhance the mechanical properties. The welding was carried out using an IPG 500 SM fiber laser. The length of the laser joint produced was 20 mm and the width was about 200 µm. The strength of the joint was evaluated by conducting the lap shear stress test. Samples in which filler foil was used exhibited a better performance in the lap shear stress test (an average of 780 N) than the samples without tin foil (an average of 650 N). The improvement in the lap shear test could be attributed to the positive effects of the filler on enhancing the compatibility of the intermetallic compound formed via diffusion. The fracture surface of both types of joints (with and without filler) was characterized using scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX). To understand the failure initiation and propagation of the samples under tension, a finite element (FE) model was developed for the samples created with no filler material. The failure mechanism predicted from the FE model matches reasonably well with the experimental observations from EDAX analysis.


Welding Laser Welding Heat Affect Zone Dissimilar Material Failure Strength 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Davis JR (ed) (1998) Metals handbook, 2nd edn. ASM International, Materials Park, OH. ISBN 0-87170-654-7Google Scholar
  2. Chadwick R (1938) The influence of surface alloying on the strength of soft soldered joints. J Inst Met 62:277Google Scholar
  3. Chatter S, Abinandanon TA, Chattopadhyay K (2006) Microstructure development during dissimilar welding: case of laser welding of Ti with Ni involving intermetallic phase formation. J Mater Sci 41:643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ege ES, Inal OT (2000) Stability of Interfaces in explosively-welded aluminum-titanium laminates. J Mater Sci 19:1533–1535Google Scholar
  5. Esser G, Mys I, Schmdit MH (2004) Laser micro welding of copper and aluminum using filler materials. Proc SPIE 5662:337–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hansen M, Elliott R, Shunk F (1958) Constitution of binary alloys. McGraw-Hill, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. Huntington CA, Eager TW (1982) Laser welding of aluminum and aluminum alloys. In: 63rd AWS annual convention in Kansas-Missouri 25–30Google Scholar
  8. Kreimeyer M, Wagner F, Vollertsen F (2005) Laser processing of aluminum-titanum-tailored blanks. Opt Laser Eng 43:1021–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lee YG, Duh JG (1998) Characterizing the formation and growth of intermetallic compound in the solder joint. J Mater Sci 33:5569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mai TA, Spowage AC (2004) Characterization of dissimilar joint in laser welding of steel-kovar, copper-steel and copper-aluminum. Mater Sci Eng A 374:224–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mys I, Schmdit M (2006) Laser micro welding of copper and aluminum. Proc SPIE 6107:28Google Scholar
  12. Olowinsky AM, Kramer T, Durand F (2002) Laser microwelding in the watch industry. SPIE Proc 4637:571–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pang M, Yu G, Wang H, Zheng C (2008) Microstructure study of laser cast nickel-based superalloy K418. J Mater Proc Technol 207:271–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pastor M, Zhao H, Martukanitz R, DebRoy T (1999) Porosity, underfill, magnesium loss during continuous wave Nd:YAG laser welding of thin plates of aluminum alloy 5182 and 5754. Weld J 78(6):207–216Google Scholar
  15. Phanikumar G, Manjini S, Dutta P, Mazumdar J, Chattopadhyay K (2005) Characterization of a continuous CO2 Lser-welded Fe-Cu dissimilar couple. Metall Mater Transac A: Phys Metall Mater Sci 36(8):2137–2147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sepold G, Scubert E, Zerner E (1999) Laser beam joining of dissimilar materials. IIW IV-739-99, LisbonGoogle Scholar
  17. Sun Z, Ion JC (1995) Laser welding of dissimilar welding metal combinations. J Mater Sci 30:4205–4214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sun Z, Moisio T (1994) Melting ratio in laser welding of dissimilar metals. J Mater Sci Lett 13:980–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Swanger H, Maupin AR (1942) Structural changes in the bonding layer of soft-soldered joint in copper pipe line on long-continued heating. J Res Nat Bureau Stand 28:479Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad M. Hailat
    • 1
  • Ahsan Mian
    • 2
  • Zariff A. Chaudhury
    • 3
  • Golam Newaz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rahul Patwa
    • 4
  • Hans J. Herfurth
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Montana State UniversityBozemanUSA
  3. 3.Arkansas State UniversityJonesboroUSA
  4. 4.Fraunhofer Center for Laser TechnologyPlymouthUSA

Personalised recommendations