Microsystem Technologies

, Volume 16, Issue 7, pp 1037–1043 | Cite as

Design issues of BAW employment in 3D integrated sensor nodes

  • Josef PrainsackEmail author
  • Markus Dielacher
  • Martin Flatscher
  • Thomas Herndl
  • Rainer Matischek
  • Joern Stolle
  • Werner Weber
Technical Paper


In the field of wireless sensor node design a wide range of new potentials are opened by means of emerging 3D integration technologies. These technologies enable the design of highly integrated sensor nodes, but the designers face novel challenges, which specialized communications engineers are not familiar with. This work presents an advanced direct tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) with an overall size below 1 cm3 applying through silicon vias (TSV) and points out two selected design issues arising due to this high level of integration. At first design issues caused by temperature gradients within the 3D integrated chip stack are presented. Multi physics simulations show that a systematical temperature measurement error is introduced by self heating, which would affect the communication performance if unconsidered. Furthermore the radio frequency (RF) characteristics of TSVs, focusing on their electrical efficiency, are investigated. In particular the behavior of TSVs for connecting a bulk acoustic wave resonator with an impedance of 2 kΩ at 2.1 GHz is evaluated in detail.


Sensor Node Radio Frequency Surface Acoustic Wave Wireless Sensor Node Bulk Acoustic Wave 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The work presented in this paper has been funded by the European Commission sixth framework program (eCubes project, proposal number IST-026461). The authors would like to thank Roland Martin (FhG IIS EAS, Dresden) for providing extensive thermal simulation results and Michael Mark (BWRC, Berkeley) for valuable discussions. Special thanks to Maaike Taklo (SINTEF, Oslo), Matthias Klein (FhG IZM, Berlin), Josef Weber, and Peter Ramm (FhG IZM, Munich) for their excellent cooperation during the eCubes project.


  1. Aigner R (2003) MEMS in RF filter applications: thin-film bulk acoustic wave technology. Sensors Update 12(1):175–210. doi: 10.1002/seup.200390006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aigner R (2005) MEMS in RF-filter applications: thin film bulk-acoustic-wave technology. Conference on solid-state sensors, actuators and microsystems, vol 1, pp 5–8. doi: 10.1109/SENSOR.2005.1496345
  3. Dielacher M, Flatscher M, Pribyl W (2009) A low noise amplifier with on-chip matching network and integrated bulk acoustic wave resonators for high image rejection. Research in microelectronics and electronics PRIME: 172-175. doi: 10.1109/RME.2009.5201313
  4. Dubois MA (2003) Thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators: a technology overview. MEMSWAVE workshop. ISBN 2-907801-03-01Google Scholar
  5. Fischer M (2003) Tire pressure monitoring. Verlag Moderne Industrie, AugsburgGoogle Scholar
  6. Flatscher M, Dielacher M, Herndl T, Lentsch T, Matischek R, Prainsack J, Theuss H, Weber W (2008) A bulk acoustic wave (BAW)-based sensor node for automotive wireless sensor networks. e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik 125(4):143–146. doi: 10.1007/s00502-008-0525-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Flatscher M, Dielacher M, Herndl T, Lentsch T, Matischek R, Prainsack J, Theuss H, Weber W (2009) A robust wireless sensor network for in-tire-pressure monitoring. Solid-state circuits conference, pp 286–287. doi: 10.1109/ISSCC.2009.4977420
  8. Franosch M, Oppermann K-G, Meckes A, Nessler W, Aigner R (2004) Microwave Symp Digest 2:493–496. doi: 10.1109/MWSYM.2004.1336020 Google Scholar
  9. Klein W (1976) Mehrtortheorie. Akademieverlag, BerlinzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. Klumpp A, Wieland A, Ecke R, Schulz SE (2008) Metallization by chemical vapour deposition of W and Cu. In: Ramm P, Bower C, Garrou P (eds) Handbook of 3D integration: technology and applications of 3D integrated circuits, vol 1. Wiley, Weinheim, pp 157–164Google Scholar
  11. Kowalewski M (2004) Monitoring and managing tire pressure. Potentials IEEE 23(3):8–10. doi: 10.1109/MP.2004.1341778 CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  12. Ludvigsen K (2003) Porsche. Excellence was expected. Bentley Publishers, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  13. Martin R, Reitz S, Schneider P, (2008) Modularer Modellierungsansatz für die thermische Untersuchung von 3D-Strukturen. DASS: 43–47. ISBN: 3-9810287-2-4Google Scholar
  14. Otis BP, Chee YH, Lu R, Pletcher NM, Rabaey JM (2004) An ultra-low power MEMS-based two-channel transceiver for wireless sensor networks. Symposium on VLSI circuits, pp 20–23. ISBN: 0-7803-8287-0Google Scholar
  15. Ramm P, Klumpp A, Merkel R, Weber J, Wieland R, Ostmann A, Wolf J (2003) 3D system integration technologies. MRS symposium on 3D system integration technologies, pp 3–14Google Scholar
  16. Schjølberg-Henriksen K, Visser Taklo MM, Lietaer N, Prainsack J, Dielacher J, Klein M, Wolf J, Weber J, Ramm P, Seppänen T (2009) Miniaturised sensor node for tire pressure monitoring (e-CUBES). In: Advanced microsystems for automotive applications 2009. Springer, pp 313–331Google Scholar
  17. Stolle J, Reitz S, Schneider P, Wilde A (2009) Ein modularer Modellierungsansatz für die Analyse elektromagnetischer Effekte in Through Silicon Vias bei der 3D-Systemintegration. DASS: 157–162. ISBN: 3-8167-7981-6Google Scholar
  18. Visser Taklo MM, Lietaer N, Rosquist Tofteberg H, Seppänen T, Prainsack J, Weber J, Ramm P (2008) 3D MEMS and IC integration. MRS symposium on materials and technologies for 3-D integration. doi: 10.1557/PROC-1112-E04-04
  19. Wieland R (2008) SiO2. In: Ramm P, Bower C, Garrou P (eds) Handbook of 3D integration: technology and applications of 3D integrated circuits, vol 1. Wiley, Weinheim, pp 107–120Google Scholar
  20. Wojnowski M, Sommer G, Klumpp A, Weber W (2008) Electrical characterization of 3D interconnection structures up to millimeter wave frequencies. Electronics packaging technology conference, pp 1393–1402. doi: 10.1109/EPTC.2008.4763626

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josef Prainsack
    • 1
    Email author
  • Markus Dielacher
    • 1
  • Martin Flatscher
    • 1
  • Thomas Herndl
    • 1
  • Rainer Matischek
    • 1
  • Joern Stolle
    • 2
  • Werner Weber
    • 1
  1. 1.Infineon TechnologiesGrazAustria
  2. 2.Fraunhofer Institute IIS EASDresdenGermany

Personalised recommendations