Intraoperative vasoplegic syndrome in patients with fulminant myocarditis on ventricular assist device placement
- 60 Downloads
Fulminant myocarditis is uncommon, but life-threatening, and some patients need mechanical circulatory support. This study was performed to evaluate how different types of mechanical circulatory support—biventricular assist device (BiVAD) or left ventricular assist device (LVAD) placement—affect intraoperative hemodynamic status.
From January 2013 to September 2016, the patients who underwent BiVAD or LVAD placement for fulminant myocarditis were analyzed. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure, central venous pressure (CVP), vasoactive score, and inotropic score were recorded at five time points: after the induction of anesthesia; at weaning, 30 min after weaning, and 60 min after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); and at the end of surgery. The vasoactive and inotropic scores were calculated as follows: vasoactive score = norepinephrine (µg/kg/min) × 100 + milrinone (µg/kg/min) × 10 + olprinone (µg/kg/min) × 25: inotropic score = dopamine (µg/kg/min) × 1 + dobutamine (µg/kg/min) × 1 + epinephrine (µg/kg/min) × 100.
We enrolled 16 patients of fulminant myocarditis. Ten of them underwent BiVAD placement, and the other underwent LVAD placement. After weaning from CPB, the BiVAD group had a significantly lower MAP but no difference in CVP. The vasoactive score was significantly higher in the BiVAD group at weaning of CPB (p = 0.015), 30 min after weaning (p = 0.004), 60 min after weaning (p = 0.005), and at the end of surgery (p < 0.016).
Patients with BiVAD placement required more vasoactive support to maintain optimal hemodynamic status compared with those with LVAD placement. This result indicates that BiVAD placement was more associated with vasoplegic syndrome.
KeywordsFulminant myocarditis Ventricular assist device Vasoplegic syndrome
- 3.Aoyama N, Izumi T, Hiramori K, Isobe M, Kawana M, Hiroe M, Hishida H, Kitaura Y, Imaizumi T, Japanese Investigators of Fulminant Myocarditis. National survey of fulminant myocarditis in Japan: therapeutic guidelines and long-term prognosis of using percutaneous cardiopulmonary support for fulminant myocarditis (special report from a scientific committee). Circ J. 2002;66:133–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Lorusso R, Centofanti P, Gelsomino S, Barili F, Di Mauro M, Orlando P, Botta L, Milazzo F, Actis Dato G, Casabona R, Casali G, Musumeci F, De Bonis M, Zangrillo A, Alfieri O, Pellegrini C, Mazzola S, Coletti G, Vizzardi E, Bianco R, Gerosa G, Massetti M, Caldaroni F, Pilato E, Pacini D, Di Bartolomeo R, Marinelli G, Sponga S, Livi U, Mauro R, Mariscalco G, Beghi C, Miceli A, Glauber M, Pappalardo F, Russo CF, GIROC Investigators. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute fulminant myocarditis in adult patients: a 5-year multi-institutional experience. Ann Thorac Surg. 2016;101:919–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Gaies MG, Jeffries HE, Niebler RA, Pasquali SK, Donohue JE, Yu S, Gall C, Rice TB, Thiagarajan RR. Vasoactive-inotropic score is associated with outcome after infant cardiac surgery: an analysis from the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium and Virtual PICU System Registries. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2014;15:529–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.McILwain RB, Timpa JG, Kurundkar AR, Holt DW, Kelly DR, Hartman YE, Neel ML, Karnatak RK, Schelonka RL, Anantharamaiah GM, Killingsworth CR, Maheshwari A. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines rise rapidly during ECMO-related SIRS due to the release of preformed stores in the intestine. Lab Investig. 2010;90:128–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Hajjar LA, Vincent JL, Barbosa Gomes Galas FR, Rhodes A, Landoni G, Osawa EA, Melo RR, Sundin MR, Grande SM, Gaiotto FA, Pomerantzeff PM, Dallan LO, Franco RA, Nakamura RE, Lisboa LA, de Almeida JP, Gerent AM, Souza DH, Gaiane MA, Fukushima JT, Park CL, Zambolim C, Rocha Ferreira GS, Strabelli TM, Fernandes FL, Camara L, Zeferino S, Santos VG, Piccioni MA, Jatene FB, Costa Auler JO Jr, Filho RK. Vasopressin versus norepinephrine in patients with vasoplegic shock after cardiac surgery: the VANCS randomized controlled trial. Anesthesiology. 2017;126:85–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Catena E, Paino R, Milazzo F, Colombo T, Marianeschi S, Lanfranconi M, Aresta F, Bruschi G, Russo C, Vitali E. Mechanical circulatory support for patients with fulminant myocarditis: the role of echocardiography to address diagnosis, choice of device, management, and recovery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2009;23:87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Tschöpe C, Van Linthout S, Klein O, Mairinger T, Krackhardt F, Potapov EV, Schmidt G, Burkhoff D, Pieske B, Spillmann F. Mechanical unloading by fulminant myocarditis: LV-IMPELLA, ECMELLA, BI-PELLA, and PROPELLA concepts. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12265-018-9820-2 Google Scholar