Journal of Anesthesia

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 58–66 | Cite as

Evaluating the psychometric properties of two-item and four-item short forms of the Japanese Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire: a cross-sectional study

  • Tomonori AdachiEmail author
  • Kiyoka Enomoto
  • Keiko Yamada
  • Daisuke Inoue
  • Miho Nakanishi
  • Noriyo Takahashi
  • Tomohiko Nishigami
  • Masahiko Shibata
Original Article



The Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire is a valid measure assessing self-efficacy in individuals with chronic pain. Short-form versions of the measure have been developed to decrease the assessment burden. However, few studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the short forms in languages other than English. The aim of this study was to evaluate two 2-item short forms and one 4-item short form of the Japanese Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire in terms of internal consistency, criterion validity, structural validity, and construct validity.


This was a cross-sectional study. Data from 150 individuals with mixed chronic pain at a pain management center in a university hospital were extracted from clinical records and analyzed. The data included the information of the original version and short forms of the Japanese Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and other pain-related measures assessing pain intensity, pain interference, anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing.


Item statistics supported the item selection for each of the three short forms. All the short forms demonstrated adequate internal consistency and criterion validity. With respect to construct validity, one of the 2-item short forms failed to meet the criterion regarding the change in the magnitude of correlation with a depression scale. The 4-item short form met all the criteria including structural validity.


The study findings provide evidence for the reliability and validity of 2- and 4-item versions of the Japanese Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for use in clinical and research settings.


Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire Self-efficacy Chronic pain Short form 



We would like to thank Professor Michael Nicholas for granting us permission to develop and evaluate the PSEQ-J short forms and also to Professor Mark P Jensen for his detailed comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare no conflict of interest related to the present study.

Supplementary material

540_2018_2583_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (74 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 74 KB)
540_2018_2583_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (73 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 73 KB)
540_2018_2583_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (80 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 79 KB)


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pain Management ClinicShiga University of Medical Science HospitalOtsuJapan
  2. 2.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceChiyodaJapan
  4. 4.Center for Pain ManagementOsaka University Medical HospitalSuitaJapan
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyMcGill UniversityQuébecCanada
  6. 6.Department of Anesthesiology and Pain MedicineJuntendo University School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  7. 7.Public Health, Department of Social MedicineOsaka University Graduate School of MedicineSuitaJapan
  8. 8.Department of Occupational TherapyOsaka College of RehabilitationOsakaJapan
  9. 9.Department of AnesthesiologyShiga University of Medical ScienceOtsuJapan
  10. 10.Tokuyukai Senriyama HospitalToyonakaJapan
  11. 11.Department of Physical TherapyKonan Woman’s UniversityKobeJapan
  12. 12.Department of Health ScienceNaragakuen UniversityNaraJapan

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