The necessity to use selective NADPH oxidase inhibitors
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KeywordsApocynin Diphenylene iodonium NADPH oxidase
To the Editor:
Kito et al.  have reported that acute hyperglycemia impairs endothelium-dependent dilation of the rat pial arteriole. They also have quoted in their publication  that the NADPH oxidase inhibitors restore the vascular dysfunction. We have several concerns regarding their methodology, as well as the conclusion . Both apocynin and diphenylene iodonium (DPI) are flavoprotein inhibitors, which play roles as non-selective inhibitors of reactive oxygen species, whereas Kito et al. adopted the agents as NADPH oxidase inhibitors in their study [1, 2, 3]. Indeed, previous studies proved that apocynin and DPI are non-selective antioxidants, and therefore, we should not use them as NADPH oxidase inhibitors in studies related to the vascular system [2, 3]. Therefore, we strongly recommend Kito et al.  to employ selective NADPH oxidase inhibitors, including gp91ds-tat to conclude that NADPH oxidase contributes to the endothelial dysfunction of the rat pial arteriole caused by acute hyperglycemia . Collectively, we would like to await additional studies to verify the conclusion by Kito et al. .
The institutional funding supported this study.
Conflict of interest
Hiroyuki Kinoshita is a consult of IMI Co. Ltd, Koshigaya, Saitama, Japan.