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Journal of Anesthesia

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 116–122 | Cite as

Predictors and outcomes following naloxone administration during Phase I anesthesia recovery

  • Toby N. WeingartenEmail author
  • Elisa Y. Chong
  • Darrell R. Schroeder
  • Juraj Sprung
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

To identify characteristics associated with postoperative respiratory depression that required naloxone intervention during Phase I recovery following general anesthesia. A secondary aim is to compare postoperative outcomes between patients who received naloxone and those who did not.

Methods

Patients who received naloxone to reverse opioid-induced respiratory depression or sedation during Phase I postanesthesia recovery from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013 were identified and matched to 2 controls based on age, sex, and surgical procedure during the same year. A chart review was performed to identify factors associated with risk for intervention requiring naloxone as well as to note the occurrence of adverse postoperative outcomes. Analyses to assess characteristics potentially associated with naloxone use were performed using conditional logistic regression taking into account the 1:2 matched set case–control study design.

Results

Naloxone was administered to 413 patients, with an incidence of 2.5 per 1000 anesthetics [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.7–6.5]. Presence of obstructive sleep apnea [odds ratio (OR) = 1.74, 95 % CI 1.22–2.48, P = 0.002], ASA Physical Status (PS) ≥III (OR 1.44, 95 % CI 1.08–1.92, P = 0.013), and greater opioid administration (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.12–1.33, per 10 intravenous morphine equivalents mg, P < 0.001) were associated with naloxone administration. Naloxone administration was associated with increased adverse events (OR 3.39, 95 % CI 2.22–5.23, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Obstructive sleep apnea, higher ASA-PS scores and greater doses of intraoperative opioids were associated with naloxone administration during Phase I recovery. Patients administered naloxone had increased adverse events after discharge from the recovery room and may benefit from a higher level of postoperative care.

Keywords

Naloxone Postoperative complications 

Supplementary material

540_2015_2082_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 18 kb)

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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toby N. Weingarten
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elisa Y. Chong
    • 2
  • Darrell R. Schroeder
    • 3
  • Juraj Sprung
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic College of MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Mayo Clinic Medical Student, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Medical SchoolMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Biomedical Statistics and InformaticsMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  4. 4.Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic College of MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

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