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Journal of Anesthesia

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 386–393 | Cite as

Electroencephalographic response following midazolam-induced general anesthesia: relationship to plasma and effect-site midazolam concentrations

  • Wakako Miyake
  • Yutaka Oda
  • Yuko Ikeda
  • Satoshi Hagihira
  • Hiroyoshi Iwaki
  • Akira Asada
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the relationships between effect-site concentrations and electroencephalographic parameters after the induction of general anesthesia with midazolam.

Methods

Twenty-four patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists status I or II were randomly allocated to receive either an intravenous (i.v.) bolus of midazolam 0.2 mg kg−1 (small-dose group, n = 12) or 0.3 mg kg−1 (large-dose group, n = 12) for induction of general anesthesia in a double-blind experimental design. The bispectral index (BIS), 95% spectral edge frequency (SEF95), spectral power density, and plasma concentrations of midazolam were measured for 60 min following the induction of general anesthesia.

Results

Plasma and simulated effect-site concentrations of midazolam were significantly higher in the large-dose group than in the small-dose group (P = 0.005 and <0.001, respectively). There was a correlation between the relative beta ratio and BIS (r 2 = 0.30, P < 0.001; n = 168); however, effect-site concentrations of midazolam showed no association with BIS, relative beta ratio, or SEF95 (r 2 = 0.07, 0.11 and 0.01, respectively; n = 168). The electroencephalographic spectral power density in the beta-band (≥13 and <30 Hz) was significantly increased after induction and was significantly larger in the large-dose group than in the small-dose group (P = 0.009).

Conclusion

Following the induction of general anesthesia with i.v. midazolam 0.2 or 0.3 mg kg−1, the BIS was positively correlated with the relative beta ratio. Despite a rapid decrease in the plasma and effect-site concentrations of midazolam, the average BIS remained >60 for 60 min after induction, reflecting an increased power of the electroencephalographic high-frequency band.

Keywords

Bispectral index Electroencephalogram Midazolam Relative beta ratio Spectral edge frequency 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported in part by the Fund for Specific Research from Osaka City University.

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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wakako Miyake
    • 1
  • Yutaka Oda
    • 1
  • Yuko Ikeda
    • 1
  • Satoshi Hagihira
    • 2
  • Hiroyoshi Iwaki
    • 3
  • Akira Asada
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyOsaka City University Graduate School of MedicineAbeno-ku, OsakaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Graduate School of MedicineOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryOsaka City University Graduate School of MedicineOsakaJapan

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