Presynaptic M1, M2, and A1 receptors play roles in tetanic fade induced by pancuronium or cisatracurium
We investigated whether presynaptic facilitatory M1 and/or inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptors contributed to pancuronium- and cisatracurium-induced tetanic fade.
Phrenic nerve-diaphragm muscle preparations of rats were indirectly stimulated with tetanic frequency (75 ± 3.3 Hz; mean ± SD). Doses of pancuronium, cisatracurium, hexamethonium, and d-tubocurarine for producing approximately 25% fade were determined. The effects of pirenzepine and methoctramine, blockers of presynaptic M1 and M2 receptors, respectively, on the tetanic fade were investigated.
The concentrations required for approximately 25% fade were 413 µM for hexamethonium (26.8 ± 2.4% 4% fade), 55 nM for d-tubocurarine (28.7 ± 2.55% fade), 0.32 µM for pancuronium (25.4 ± 2.2% fade), and 0.32 µM for cisatracurium (24.7 ± 0.8% fade). Pirenzepine or methoctramine alone did not produce the fade. Methoctramine, 1 µM, attenuated the fade induced by hexamethonium (to 16.0 ± 2.5% fade), d-tubocurarine (to 6.0 ± 1.6 fade), pancuronium (to 8.0 ± 4.0% fade), and cisatracurium (to 11.0 ± 3.3% fade). 10 nM pirenzepine attenuated only the fades produced by pancuronium (to 5.0 ± 0.11% fade) and cisatracurium (to 13.3 ± 5.3% fade). Cisatracurium (0.32 µM) showed antiacetylcholinesterase activity (in plasma, 14.2 ± 1.6%; 6%; in erythrocyt 17.2 ± 2.66%) similar to that of pancuronium (0.32 µM). The selective A1 receptor blocker, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 2.5 nM), also attenuated the fades induced by pancuronium and cisatracurium.
The tetanic fades produced by pancuronium and cisatracurium depend on the activation of presynaptic inhibitory M2 receptors; these agents also have anticholinesterase activities. The fades induced by these agents also depend on the activation of presynaptic inhibitory A1 receptors through the activation of stimulatory M1 receptors by acetylcholine.
Key wordsPancuronium Cisatracurium Pirenzepine Methoctramine
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