Journal of Anesthesia

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 331–334 | Cite as

Effects of the electrode temperature of a new monitor, TCM4, on the measurement of transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide tension

  • Tomoki Nishiyama
  • Shinji Nakamura
  • Koichi Yamashita


The transcutaneous measurement of oxygen (tcPO 2) and carbon dioxide (tcPCO 2) tensions may serve as a surrogate of arterial oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO 2) tensions, respectively. We investigated the effects of the electrode temperature of a new device, TCM4, on the measurement of tcPO 2 and tcPCO 2. Twenty-five patients scheduled for major lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. The electrode of the TCM4 was attached to the chest, with its temperature set to 37°C, 40°C, 42°C, 43°C, or 44°C. tcPO 2, tcPCO 2, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (EtCO 2), PaO 2, and PaCO 2 were simultaneously measured at various EtCO 2 levels and inhaled oxygen concentrations. The times required for stabilization of the tcPO 2 and tcPCO 2 values were measured. A Bland-Altman plot was used to compare the two measurements. The time required for stabilization was shorter with a higher electrode temperature, but the shortest time was still more than 150 s. TcPO 2 correlated well with PaO 2 at 43°C and 44°C. TcPCO 2 correlated well with PaCO 2 and EtCO 2 at 43°C. The bias and limits of agreement were larger with lower electrode temperature for TcPO 2—PaO 2, tcPCO 2—PaCO 2, and tcPCO 2—EtCO 2. We concluded that the electrode of the TCM4 should be heated to at least 43°C to measure tcPO 2 and tcPCO 2. However, the absolute values of tcPO 2 and tcPCO 2 could not be used as surrogate measurements of PaO 2 and PaCO 2, respectively.

Key words

Transcutaneous oxygen tension Transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension Electrode temperature 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Huch, R, Huch, A, Albani, M, Gabriel, M, Schulte, FJ, Walf, H, Rupprath, G, Emmrich, P, Stechele, U, Duc, G, Bucher, H 1976Transcutaneous PO2 monitoring in routine management of infants and children with cardiovascular problemsPediatrics57681690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hutchison, DCS, Rocca, G, Honeybourne, D 1981Estimation of arterial oxygen tension in adult subjects using a transcutaneous electrodeThorax36473477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Monaco, F, McQuitty, JC, Nickerson, BG 1983Calibration of a heated transcutaneous carbon dioxide electrode to reflect arterial carbon dioxideAm Rev Respir Dis127322324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Takiwaki, H, Nakanishi, H, Shono, Y, Arase, S 1991The influence of cutaneous factors on the transcutaneous pO2 and pCO2 at various body sitesBr J Dermatol125243247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blant, JM, Altman, DG 1986Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurementsLancet8476307310Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tremper, KK, Shoemaker, WC 1981Transcutaneous oxygen monitoring of critically ill adults, with and without low flow shockCrit Care Med9706709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Janssens, JP, Perrin, E, Bennani, I, de Muralt, B, Titelion, V, Picaud, C 2001Is continuous transcutaneous monitoring of PCO2 (TcPCO2) over 8 h reliable in adults?Respir Med95331335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pilsbury, D, Hibbert, G 1987An ambulatory system for long-term continuous monitoring of transcutaneous PCO2Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir23913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mahutte, K, Michiels, TM, Hassell, KT, Trueblood, DM 1984Evaluation of a single transcutaneous PO2-PCO2 sensor in adult patientsCrit Care Med1210631066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Phan, CQ, Tremper, KK, Lee, SE, Barker, SJ 1987Noninvasive monitoring of carbon dioxide: a comparison of the partial pressure of transcutaneous and end-tidal carbon dioxide with the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxideJ Clin Monit3149154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Naughton, MT, Benard, DC, Rutherford, R, Bradley, TD 1994Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on central sleep apnea and nocturnal PCO2 in heart failureAm J Respir Crit Care Med15015981604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Griffiths, T, Fernando, S, Saunders, K 1996Effect of adenosine infusion on oxygen induced carbon dioxide tension in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseThorax5110831086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Herrell, N, Martin, RJ, Pultusker, M, Lough, M, Fanaroff, A 1980Optimal temperature for the measurement of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension in the neonateJ Pediatr97114117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Martin, RJ, Herrell, N, Pultusker, M 1981Transcutaneous measurement of carbon dioxide tension: effect of sleep state in term infantsPediatrics67622625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Franklin, ML 1995Transcutaneous measurement of partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxideRespir Care Clin N Am1119131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wimberley, PD, Gronlund-Pedersen, K, Olsson, J, Siggaard-Abderson, O 1985Transcutaneous carbon dioxide and oxygen tension measured at different temperatures in healthy adultsClin Chem3116111615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kesten, S, Chapman, KR, Rebuck, AS 1991Response characteristics of a dual transcutaneous oxygen/carbon dioxide monitoring systemChest9912111215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tremper, KK, Waxman, K, Shoemaker, WC 1979Effects of hypoxia and shock on transcutaneous PO2 values in dogsCrit Care Med7526351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bradley, AF, Severinghaus, JW, Stupfel, M 1956Effect of temperature on PCO2 and PO2 of blood in vitroJ Appl Physiol9201204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schachter, EN, Rafferty, TD, Knight, C, Yocher, R, Mentelos, R, Giambalvo, L, Firestone, L, Barash, PG 1981Transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide monitoring. Use in adult surgical patients in an intensive care unitArch Surg11611931196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wimberley, PD, Pedersen, KG, Thode, J, Fogh-Anderson, N, Sorensen, AM, Siggaard-Anderson, O 1983Transcutaneous and capillary pCO2 and pO2 measurements in healthy adultsClin Chem2914711473PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© JSA 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomoki Nishiyama
    • 1
  • Shinji Nakamura
    • 1
  • Koichi Yamashita
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyThe University of Tokyo, Faculty of MedicineTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care MedicineKochi University Medical SchoolKochiJapan

Personalised recommendations