Combination of transileocolic vein obliteration and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is effective for ruptured duodenal varices
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Duodenal varices are a rare site of hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension, but their rupture is a serious and often fatal event. We report a 65-year-old woman who presented with hematemesis and melena. She was admitted to our department because of prolonged shock, despite having received transfusion of a large volume of blood. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed nodular varices with active bleeding in the second portion of the duodenum. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) was performed using a tissue adhesive agent, α-cyanoacrylate monomer, with only temporary benefit. However, anemia continued to progress after the procedure. Therefore, we combined transileocolic vein obliteration (TIO) with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RIO), using 5% ethanolamine oleate with iopamidol to obliterate the varices. Complete hemostasis was achieved without complications. Neither recurrence of varices nor further bleeding has occurred for over 3 years. We conclude that combined TIO and B-RTO, which can obstruct both the feeding and the draining vessels of duodenal varices to retain the sclerosing agent completely in the varices, is a safe and effective hemostatic measure for ruptured duodenal varices, when EIS has failed to accomplish complete hemostasis.
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