Phospholipid turnover in the inflamed intestinal mucosa: Arachidonic acid-rich phosphatidyl/plasmenyl-ethanolamine in the mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease
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Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (PLase A2) is activated by low Ca2+ concentrations and translocates from the cytosol to the cell membrane, releasing arachidonic acid; the arachidonic acid cascade then leads to the production of many inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study, accordingly, was to investigate the role of phospholipid metabolism in the intestinal mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Surgically resected specimens from patients with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and colrectal cancer (non-cancerous tissue; as a control) were submitted to phospholipid analysis and a PLase A2 assay, which measures the degradation of endogenous mucosal phospholipids. A high percentage of plasmenylethanolamine (plas.E) was detected in the glycerophospholipid fraction of CD mucosa. The arachidonic acid content of the phosphatidylethanolamine plus plas.E subfraction was higher in inflamed than in intact mucosa in CD. PLaseA2 activity, resulting in lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine production, was detected only in inflamed mucosa from CD and UC patients, but not in normal mucosa from controls. PLaseA2 activity was highest in moderately inflamed mucosa adjacent to a severely ulcerated area. The PLaseA2 that reacts with endogenous phosphatidylcholine (PC) to form lysoPC was found irrespective of the presence of inflammation. The PLaseA2 that reacts with ethanolamine-containing phospholipids is more closely related to inflammation than other PLaseA2 isoenzymes in IBD mucosa.
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