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Journal of Gastroenterology

, Volume 51, Issue 5, pp 421–433 | Cite as

Role of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid for hepatocellular carcinoma: evidence from a 10-year experience

  • Hitoshi MaruyamaEmail author
  • Tadashi Sekimoto
  • Osamu Yokosuka
Review

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents primary liver cancer. Because the development of HCC limits the prognosis as well as the quality of life of the patients, its management should be properly conducted based on an accurate diagnosis. The liver is the major target organ of ultrasound (US), which is the simple, non-invasive, and real-time imaging method available worldwide. Microbubble-based contrast agents are safe and reliable and have become popular, which has resulted in the improvement of diagnostic performances of US due to the increased detectability of the peripheral blood flow. Sonazoid (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, USA), a second-generation contrast agent, shows the unique property of accumulation in the liver and spleen. Contrast-enhanced US with Sonazoid is now one of the most frequently used modalities in the practical management of liver tumors, including the detection and characterization of the nodule, evaluation of the effects of non-surgical treatment, intraoperative support, and post-treatment surveillance. This article reviews the 10-year evidence for contrast-enhanced US with Sonazoid in the practical management of HCC.

Keywords

Hepatocellular carcinoma Contrast-enhanced ultrasound Sonazoid 

Abbreviations

AUROC

Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve

CEUS

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound

CT

Computed tomography

CTA

CT arteriography

CTAP

CT arterioportal angiography

DN

Dysplastic nodule

EOB-MRI

Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-MRI

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

ICC

Intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma

mHCC

Moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma

MIP

Maximum intensity projection

NFLL

New focal liver lesions

NS

Not statistically significant

PR

Partial response

PD

Progressive disease

pHCC

Poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma

RN

Regenerative nodule

RFA

Radiofrequency ablation

SD

Stable disease

S-CEUS

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound with Sonazoid

SPIO-MRI

Superparamagnetic iron oxide magnetic resonance imaging

TACE

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

US

Ultrasound

wHCC

Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Gastroenterology 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hitoshi Maruyama
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tadashi Sekimoto
    • 1
  • Osamu Yokosuka
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Gastroenterology and NephrologyChiba University Graduate School of MedicineChibaJapan

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