NY-ESO-1 autoantibody as a tumor-specific biomarker for esophageal cancer: screening in 1969 patients with various cancers
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Although serum NY-ESO-1 antibodies (s-NY-ESO-1-Abs) have been reported in patients with esophageal carcinoma, this assay system has not been used to study a large series of patients with various other cancers.
Patients and methods
Serum samples of 1969 cancer patients [esophageal cancer (n = 172), lung cancer (n = 269), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 91), prostate cancer (n = 358), gastric cancer (n = 313), colorectal cancer (n = 262), breast cancer (n = 365)] and 74 healthy individuals were analyzed using an originally developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for s-NY-ESO-1-Abs. The optical density cut-off value, determined as the mean plus three standard deviations for serum samples from the healthy controls, was fixed at 0.165. Conventional tumor markers were also evaluated in patients with esophageal carcinoma.
The positive rate of s-NY-ESO-1-Abs in patients with esophageal cancer (31 %) was significantly higher than that in the other groups: patients with lung cancer (13 %), patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (11 %), patients with prostate cancer (10 %), patients with gastric cancer (10 %), patients with colorectal cancer (8 %), patients with breast cancer (7 %), and healthy controls (0 %). The positive rate of s-NY-ESO-1-Abs was comparable to that of serum p53 antibodies (33 %), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (36 %), carcinoembryonic antigen (26 %), and CYFRA 21-1 (18 %) and gradually increased with the tumor stage.
The positive rate of s-NY-ESO-1-Abs was significantly higher in patients with esophageal cancer than in patients with the other types of cancers. On the basis of its high specificity and sensitivity, even in patients with stage I tumors, s-NY-ESO-1-Abs may be one of the first choices for esophageal cancer.
KeywordsNY-ESO-1 Serum autoantibody Tumor marker Esophageal cancer Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma antigen
Serum NY-ESO-1 antibodies
We thank the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan for Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (nos. 24591961 and 21591717).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.