Journal of Gastroenterology

, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 412–418 | Cite as

Gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals at various temperatures

Effect of meal temperature for gastric emptying
  • Yuko Mishima
  • Yuji Amano
  • Yoshiko Takahashi
  • Yoshiyuki Mishima
  • Nobuyuki Moriyama
  • Tatsuya Miyake
  • Norihisa Ishimura
  • Shunji Ishihara
  • Yoshikazu Kinoshita
Original Article—Alimentary Tract



Patients with functional dyspepsia frequently show delayed gastric emptying, and dietary advice is frequently given for its improvement. If meal temperature influences gastric emptying, advice regarding the meal temperature may become a possible component of dietary therapy. However, little information exists concerning the thermal effect of meals on gastric emptying. The aim of this study was to determine the thermal effect of liquid and solid meals on gastric emptying.


The gastric emptying of liquid and solid test meals was examined in healthy volunteers (liquid, n = 25, mean age = 35.7 ± 9.6 years, male-to-female ratio = 22:3; solid, n = 25, mean age = 35.2 ± 8.8 years, male-to-female ratio = 20:5). Gastric emptying after the ingestion of liquid or solid meals at three different temperatures (4, 37, and 60°C) was investigated with the [13C]-labeled acetate breath test. The lag phase time (Tmax-calc) and the half-emptying time (T1/2) were calculated from the 13CO2 breath excretion curve as indices of gastric emptying.


The values of Tmax-calc at 60°C with both the liquid and solid meals were significantly smaller than those at 37°C (< 0.05). However, there was no difference in the T1/2 values. In the analysis of the percent excretion of 13CO2 in 1 h (% dose/h) data with the liquid meal test in the earlier phase within 30 min, significantly larger values were found at 60°C than at the other temperatures. These findings suggest that a hot meal significantly accelerates gastric emptying.


Meal temperature may be considered as a component of dietary therapy for patients with functional dyspepsia.


Gastric emptying Meal temperature Liquid meal Solid meal 13CO2 breath test 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuko Mishima
    • 1
  • Yuji Amano
    • 2
  • Yoshiko Takahashi
    • 1
  • Yoshiyuki Mishima
    • 1
  • Nobuyuki Moriyama
    • 1
  • Tatsuya Miyake
    • 1
  • Norihisa Ishimura
    • 1
  • Shunji Ishihara
    • 1
  • Yoshikazu Kinoshita
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Gastroenterology and HepatologySchool of Medicine, Shimane UniversityIzumoJapan
  2. 2.Division of Gastrointestinal EndoscopyShimane University HospitalIzumoJapan

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