Journal of Gastroenterology

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 1–17 | Cite as

Inflammatory bowel disease, past, present and future: lessons from animal models

  • Atsushi Mizoguchi
  • Emiko Mizoguchi


Accumulating data from animal models indicate that Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is mediated by a much more complicated mechanism than previously predicted. For example, the role of an individual molecule in the pathogenesis of IBD distinctly differs depending on several factors, including the fundamental mechanism of induction of the disease, the target cell type, the phase of disease, and the environment. Therefore, it has been difficult in the past to fully explain the complicated mechanism. Novel concepts have recently been proposed to further explain the complicated mechanism of IBD. In this review, we introduce past, current, and possible future concepts for IBD models regarding T helper (Th) 1, Th2, and Th17, antigen sampling and presentation, regulatory cell networks, NOD2, Toll-like receptors, bacteria/epithelia interaction, stem cells, autophagy, microRNAs, and glycoimmunology, and we also discuss the relevance of these new concepts, developed at the bench (in animal models), to the bedside.

Key words

antigen sampling autophagy IBD Breg mucin NOD2 Th17 TLRs 


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atsushi Mizoguchi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Emiko Mizoguchi
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PathologyExperimental PathologyBostonUSA
  2. 2.Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseMassachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineMassachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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