Advertisement

The absence of high-pressure metamorphism in the inverted Barrovian metamorphic sequences of the Arun area, eastern Nepal and its tectonic implication

  • Takeshi ImayamaEmail author
  • Shoji Uehara
  • Harutaka Sakai
  • Koshi Yagi
  • Chiaki Ikawa
  • Keewook Yi
Original Paper
  • 61 Downloads

Abstract

The metamorphic pressure–temperature (PT) conditions across the Main central thrust (MCT) in the Arun area have been investigated. The MCT marks the tectono-metamorphic boundary between the overlying high-grade High Himalaya crystalline sequences (HHCS) and the underlying low-grade Lesser Himalaya sequences (LHS). The metamorphic rocks regionally preserve an inverted Barrovian sequence (i.e., intermediate P/T type metamorphism) devoid of previously reported high-pressure metamorphism. The metamorphic grade increases upwards from 670–740 °C and 6.9–9.4 kbar in the MCT zone and lower HHCS to 760–835 °C and 10.0–11.1 kbar in the middle HHCS. Orthoamphibole gneisses in the middle HHCS yield prograde Barrovian-type metamorphism, such as staurolite inclusions in garnets, showing an intermediate P/T gradient. The differences in the tectonic setting and metamorphic evolution imply that the metamorphic units in the Arun area do not correspond to the other high-pressure units in eastern Himalaya. Zircon and monazite U–Pb ages from kyanite gneiss of the lower HHCS reveal the MCT activity, associated with fluid-present anatexis, at ca. 20–14 Ma. Furthermore, similar K–Ar white mica ages (ca. 13–7 Ma) in the hanging wall and footwall of the MCT could represent the timing of later deformation events in shear zones or cooling, possibly associated with exhumation accompanied by activities on younger, structurally lower thrust faults such as the lower MCT. The similar PT conditions near the MCT in this area could result from recrystallization during syn-metamorphic thrusting, whereas the middle HHCS away from the MCT preserve the original Barrovian metamorphic sequences related to crustal thickening. This and previous studies imply that different PT profiles near the MCT according to each transect observed in Nepal could be apparent and the cumulative result of polyphase metamorphism.

Keywords

Inverted metamorphism High-pressure metamorphism Eastern Nepal Main central thrust Geochronology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Shinae Lee and Ryoichi Kawabata for helping during the SHRIMP and EPMA analyses, respectively. We thank Prof. Chiara Montomoli, Prof. Djordje Grujic, and Prof. Franco Rolfo for constructive and critical reviews that significantly helped to improve the manuscript. We also thank Prof. Wolf-Christian Dullo and Prof. Soumyajit Mukherjee for careful editorial handling. The research was supported in part by Grant Nos. 16H07376 and 18K03788 to T. Imayama and No. 16H04062 to H. Sakai from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. This research was also supported by the Korea Basic Science Institute under the R&D program (Project No. D38700) supervised by the Ministry of Science and ICT.

References

  1. Aleinikoff JN, Schenck WS, Plank MO, Srogi L, Fanning CM, Kamo SL, Howell B (2006) Deciphering igneous and metamorphic events in high-grade rocks of the Wilmington complex, delaware: morphology, cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron zoning, and SHRIMP U–Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite. Geol Soc Am Bull 118:39–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambrose TK, Larson KP, Guilmette C, Cottle JM, Buckingham H, Rai S (2015) Lateral extrusion, underplating, and out-of-sequence thrusting within the Himalayan metamorphic core, Kanchenjunga. Nepal. Lithosphere 7:441–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson JL, Smith DR (1995) The effect of temperature and oxygen fugacity on Al-in-hornblende barometry. Am Mineral 80:549–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arita K (1983) Origin of the inverted metamorphism of the Lower Himalayas, central Nepal. Tectonophysics 95:43–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beaumont C, Jamieson RA, Nguyen MH, Lee B (2001) Himalayan tectonics explained by extrusion of a low-viscosity crustal channel coupled to focused surface denudation. Nature 414:738–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beaumont et al., 2004 Beaumont C, Jamieson RA, Nguyen MH, Medvedev S (2004) Crustal channel flows: 1. Numerical models with applications to the tectonics of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. J Geophys Res 109:B06406. doi: 10.1029/2003JB002809.Google Scholar
  7. Bhattacharya A, Mohanty L, Maji A, Sen SK, Raith M (1992) Non-ideal mixing in the phlogopite-annite binary: constrains from experimental data on Mg–Fe partitioning and a reformulation of the biotite-garnet geothermometer. Contrib Mineral Petrol 111:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brookfield ME (1993) The Himalayan passive margin from Precambrian to Cretaceous. Sed Geol 84:1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brunel M, Kienast JR (1986) Etude pe´tro-structurale des chevauchements ductiles himalayens sur la transversale de l’Everest-Makalu (Ne´pal oriental). Can J Earth Sci 23:1117–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carosi R, Montomoli C, Iaccarino S, Massonne HJ, Rubatto D, Langone A, Gemignani L, Visonà D (2016) Middle to late Eocene exhumation of the Greater Himalayan sequence in the Central Himalayas: progressive accretion from the Indian plate. Geol Soc Am Bull 128:1571–1592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carosi R, Montomoli C, Iaccarino S (2018) 20 years of geological mapping of the metamorphic core across Central and Eastern Himalayas. Earth Sci Rev 177:124–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Catlos EJ, Harrison TM, Kohn MJ, Grove M, Ryerson FJ, Manning CE, Upreti BN (2001) Geochronologic and thermobarometric constraints on the evolution of the main central thrust, central Nepal Himalaya. J Geoph Res Atmos 106:16177–16204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Catlos EJ, Harrison TM, Manning CE, Grove M, Rai SM, Hubbard MS, Upreti BN (2002) Records of the evolution of the Himalayan orogen from in situ Th-Pb ion microprobe dating of monazite: Eastern Nepal and western Garhwal. J Asian Earth Sci 20:459–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chakungal J, Dostal J, Grujic D, Duchêne S, Ghalley KS (2010) Provenance of the Greater Himalayan sequence: Evidence from mafic granulites and amphibolites in NW Bhutan. Tectonophysics 480:198–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Corrie SL, Kohn MJ, Vervoort JD (2010) Young eclogite from the Greater Himalayan sequence, Arun Valley, eastern Nepal: P-T-t path and tectonic implications. Earth Planet Sci Lett 289:406–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cottle JM, Searle MP, Horstwood MSA, Waters DJ (2009) Timing of midcrustal metamorphism, melting, and deformation in the Mount Everese egion of Southern Tibet revealed by U(-Th)–Pb geochronology. J Geol 117:643–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cottle JM, Waters DJ, Riley D, Beyssac O, Jessup MJ (2011) Metamorphic history of the South Tibetan Detachemnet System, Mt. Everest region, revealed by RSCM thermometry and phase equilibria modeling. J Metamorph Geol 29:561–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dasgupta S, Ganguly J, Neogi S (2004) Inverted metamorphic sequence in the Sikkin Himalayas: crystallization history P–T gradient and implications. J Metamorph Geol 22:395–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. England P, Molnar P (1993) The interpretation of inverted metamorphic isograds using simple physical calculations. Tectonics 12:145–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Godin L, Grujic D, Law RD, Searle MP (2006) Channel flow, ductile extrusion and exhumation in continental collision zones: an introduction. In: Law RD, Searle MP, Godin L (eds) Channel flow, ductile extrusion and exhumation in continental collision zones, Geological Society London, Spec Pub 268, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  21. Goscombe B, Hand M (2000) Contrasting P–T paths in the eastern Himalaya, Nepal: inverted isograds in a paird metamorphic mountain belt. J Petrol 41:1673–1719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Goscombe B, Gray D, Hand M (2006) Crustal architecture of the Himalayan metamorphic front in eastern Nepal. Gondwana Res 10:232–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goscombe B, Gray D, Foster DA (2018) Metamorphic response to collision in the Central Himalayan Orogen. Gondwana Res 57:191–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Groppo C, Lombardo B, Rolfo F, Pertusati P (2007) Clockwise exhumation path of granulitized eclogites from the Ama Drime range (Eatern Himalayas). J Metamorp Geol 25:51–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Groppo C, Rolfo F, Lombardo B (2009) P-T evolution across the Main Central Thrust Zone (Eastern Nepal): Hidden discontinuities revealed by petrology. J Petrol 50:1149–1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Groppo C, Rubatto D, Rolfo F, Lombardo B (2010) Early Oligocene partial melting in the Main Central Thrust Zone (Arun valley, eastern Nepal Himalaya). Lithos 118:287–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Groppo C, Rolfo F, Indares A (2012) Partial melting in the Higher Himalayan Crystallines of eastern Nepal: the effect of decompression and implications for the ‘channel flow’ model. J Petrol 53:1057–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Groppo C, Rolfo F, Mosca P (2013) The cordieritebearing anatectic rocks of the Higher Himalayan Crystallines (eastern Nepal): low-pressure anatexis, melt-productivity, melt loss and the preservation of cordierite. J Metamorp Geol 31:187–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grujic D, Casey M, Davidson C, Hollister LS, Kundig R, Parvlis T, Schmid S (1996) Ductile extrusion of the Higher Himalayan Crystaline in Bhutan: evidence from quartz microfabrics. Tectonophysics 260:21–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grujic D, Warren CJ, Wooden JL (2011) Rapid synconvergent exhumation of Miocene-aged lower orogenic crust in the eastern Himalaya. Lithosphere 3:346–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guidotti CV, Sassi FP (1998) Petrogenetic significance of Na–K white mica mineralogy: recent advances for metamorphic rocks. Eur J Mineral 10:815–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harrison TM, Grove M, Lovera OM, Catlos EJ, D’Andrea J (1999) The origin of Himalayan anatexis and inverted metamorphism: models and constraints. J Asian Earth Sci 17:755–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hawthorne F, Oberti R, Harlow GE, Maresch WV, Martin RF, Schumacher JC, Welch MD (2012) Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup. Am Mineral 97:2031–2048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Herman F, Copeland P, Avouac JP, Bollinger L, Mahéo G, Le Fort P, Rai S, Foster D, Pêcher A, Stűwe K, Henry P (2010) Exhumation, crustal deformation, and thermal structure of the Nepal Himalaya derived from the inversion of thermochronological and thermobarometric data and modeling of the topography. J Geophys Res 115:1–38Google Scholar
  35. Hodges KV (2000) Overview: tectonics of the Himalaya and southern Tibet from two perspectives. Geol Soc Am Bull 112:324–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hoisch TD (1990) Empirical calibration of six geobarometers for the mineral assemblage quartz + white mica + biotite + plagioclase + garnet. Contrib Mineral Petrol 104:225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Holland T, Blundy J (1994) Non-ideal interactions in calcic amphiboles and their bearing on amphibole-plagioclase thermometry. Contrib Mineral Petrol 116:433–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hubbard MS (1989) Themobarometric constraints on the thermal history of the Main Central Thrust Zone and Tibetan Slab, eastern Nepal Himalaya. J Metamorph Geol 7:19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hubbard MS, Harison TM (1989) 40Ar/39Ar age constrains on deformation and metamorphism in the main central thrust zone and Tibetan slab, eastern Nepal Himalaya. Tectonics 8:865–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hubbard MS (1996) Ductile shear as a cause of inverted Metamorphism: example from the Nepal Himalaya. J Geol 104:493–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Iaccarino S, Montomoli C, Carosi R, Massonne HJ, Langone A, Visonà D (2015) Pressure-temperature-time-deformation path of kyanite-bearing migmatitic paragneiss in the Kali Gandaki valley (Central Nepal): investigation of Late Eocene-Early Oligocene melting processes. Lithos 231:103–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Iaccarino S, Montomoli C, Carosi R, Massonne HJ, Visonā D (2017) Geology and tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Himalayan metamorphic core: insights from the Mugu Karnali transect, Western Nepal (Central Himalaya). J Metamorp Geol 35:301–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Imayama T, Arita K (2008) Nd isotopic data reveal the material and tectonic nature of the Main Central Thrust zone in Nepal Himalaya. Tectonophysics 451:265–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Imayama T, Takeshita T, Arita K (2010) Metamorphic P–T profile and P–T path discontinuity across the far-eastern Nepal Himalaya: investigation of channel flow models. J Metamorph Geol 28:527–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Imayama T, Takeshita T, Yi K, Cho DL, Kiatajima K, Tsutsumi Y, Kayama M, Nishido H, Okumura T, Yagi K, Itaya T, Sano Y (2012) Two-stage partial melting and contrasting cooling history within the Higher Himalayan Crystalline Sequence in the far-eastern Nepal Himalaya. Lithos 134–135:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Imayama T (2014) P–T conditions of metabasites within regional metapelites in far-eastern Nepal Himalaya and its tectonic meaning. Swiss J Geosci 107:81–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Imayama T, Takeshita T, Yi K, Fukuyama M (2019a) Early Oligocene partial melting via biotite dehydration melting and prolonged low-pressure–low-temperature metamorphism of the upper High Himalaya Crystalline Sequence in the far east of Nepal. In: Sharma R, Villa IM, Kumar S (eds) Crustal architecture and evolution of the Himalaya–Karakoram–Tibet Orogen. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 481, pp 147–173Google Scholar
  48. Imayama T, Arita K, Fukuyama M, Yi K, Kawabata R (2019b) 1.74 Ga crustal melting after rifting at the northern Indian margin: investigation of mylonitic orthogneisses in the Kathmandu area, central Nepal. Int Geol Rev 61:1207–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ireland TR, Williams IS (2003) Considerations in zircon geochronology by SIMS. In: Hanchar JM, Hoskin PWO (eds), Zircon: Mineral Soc Am: Reviews in Mineral and Geochem 53, pp 215–241Google Scholar
  50. Itaya T, Nagao K, Inoue K, Honjou Y, Okada T, Ogata A (1991) Argon isotope analysis by a newly developed mass spectrometric system for K-Ar dating. Mineral J 15:203–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Itaya T, Hyodo H, Tsujimori T, Wallis S, Aoya M, Kawakami T, Gouzu C (2009) Regional-scale excess Ar wave in a Barrovian type metamorphic belt, eastern Tibetan Plateau. Island Arc 18:293–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jain AK, Manickavasagam RM (1993) Inverted metamorphism in the intracontinental ductile shear zone during Himalayan collision tectonics. Geology 21:407–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jamieson RA, Beaumont C, Hamilton J, Fulisack P (1996) Tectonic assembly of inverted metamorphic sequences. Geology 24:839–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jamieson RA, Beaumont C, Medvedev S, Nguyen MH (2004) Crustal channel flows: 2. Numerical models with implications for metamorphism in the Himalayan–Tibetan orogen. J Geophy Res 109:B06407. doi: 10.1029/2003JB002811Google Scholar
  55. Jamieson RA, Beaumont C, Nguyen MH, Grujic D (2006) Provenance of the Greater Himalyan Sequence and associated rocks: predictions of channel flow models. In: Law RD, Searle MP, Godin L (eds) Channel flow, ductile extrusion and exhumation in continental collision zones, Geological Society London, Spec Pub 268, pp 165–182Google Scholar
  56. Jessup MJ, Cottle JM, Searle MP, Law RD, Newell DL, Tracy RJ, Waters DJ (2008) P-T-t-D paths of everest series schist, Nepal. J Metamorph Geol 26:717–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jessup M, Cottle JM (2010) Progression from South-directed extrusion to orogen-parallel extension in the southern margin of the Tibetan plateau, Mount Everest Region. Tibet J Geol 118:467–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kellett DA, Cottle JM, Smit M (2014) Eocene deep crust at Ama Drime, Tibet: early evolution of the Himalayan orogeny. Lithosphere 6:220–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kohn MJ, Wieland MS, Parkinson CD, Upreti N (2005) Five generations of monazite in Lnagtang genisses: implications for chronology of the Himalayan metamorphic core. J Metamorph Geol 23:399–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kohn MJ (2014) Himalayan metamorphism and its tectonic implications. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 42:381–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Larson KP, Camacho A, Cottle JM, Coutand I, Buckingham HM, Ambrose TK, Rai SM (2017) Cooling, exhumation and kinematics of the Kanchengjunga Himal, far wast Nepal. Tectonics.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2017TC004496 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Larson K, Piercey S, Cottle J (2019) Preservation of a Paleoproterozoic rifted margin in the Himalaya: insight from the Ulleri–Phaplu–Melung orthogneiss. Geosci Front 10:873–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Law RD (2014) Deformation thermometry based on quartz c-axis fabrics and recrystallization microstructures: a review. J Struct Geol 66:129–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Le Fort P (1975) Himalayas: the collided range. Present knowledge of the continental arc. Am J Sci 275A:1–44Google Scholar
  65. Li D, Liao Q, Yuan Y, Wan Y, Liu D, Zhang X, Yi S, Cao S, Xie D (2003) SHRIMP U–Pb zircon geochronology of granulites at Rimana (Southern Tibet) in the central segment of Himalayan Orogen. Chin Sci Bull 48:2647–2650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Liao QN, Li DW, Lu LA, Yuan YM, Chu LL (2008) Paleoproterozoic granitic gneisses of the Dinggye and Lhagoi Kangri areas from the higher and northern Himalaya, Tibet: geochronology and implications. Sci Chin Ser D Earth Sci 51:240–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lombardo B, Pertusati P, Borghi A (1993) Geology and tectono-magmatic evolution of the eastern Himalaya along the Chomolungma–Makalu transect. In: Treloar PJ, Searle MP (eds) Himalayan tectonics. Geol Soc London Spe Pub 74, pp 341–355Google Scholar
  68. Lombardo B, Rolfo F (2000) Two contrasting eclogite types in the Himalayas: implications for the Himalayan orogeny. J Geodyn 30:37–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lombardo B, Rolfo F, McClelland WC (2016) A review of the first eclogites discovered in the Eastern Himalaya. Eur J Mineral 28:1099–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ludwig KR (2008) User’s manual for Isoplot 3.6: a Geochronological Toolkit for Microsoft Excel: Berkeley, Berkeley Geochronology Center Special Publication 4. Berkeley Geochronology Center, 77 pGoogle Scholar
  71. Macfarlane AM (1993) Chronology of tectonic events in the crystalline core of the Himalaya, Langtang National Park, Central Nepal. Tectonics 12:1004–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Meier K, Hiltner E (1993) Deformation and metamorphism within the Main Central Thrust zone, Arun Tectonic Window, eastern Nepal. In: Treloar PJ, Searle MP (eds) Himalayan Tectonics. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 74, pp 511–523Google Scholar
  73. Montemagni C, Montomoli C, Iaccarino S, Carosi R, Jain AK, Massonne HJ, Villa IM (2019) Dating protracted fault activities: microstructures, microchemistry and geochronology of the Vaikrita Thrust, Main Central Thrust zone, Garhwal Himalaya, NW India. In: Sharma R, Villa IM, Kumar S (eds) Crustal Architecture and Evolution of the Himalaya–Karakoram–Tibet Orogen. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 481, pp 127–146Google Scholar
  74. Montomoli C, Carosi R, Laccarino S (2015) Tectonometamorphic discontinuities in the Greater Himalayan Sequence: a local or a regional feature? In: Mukherjee S, Carosi R, van der Beek PA, Mukherjee, BK. Robinson DM (eds) Tectonics of the Himalaya. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 412, pp 25–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mosca P, Groppo C. Rolfo F (2012) Structural and metamorphic features of the Main Central Thrust Zone and its contiguous domains in the eastern Nepalese Himalaya. In: Gosso G, Spalla MI, Zucali M (eds) Multiscale structures and tectonic trajectories in active margins. J Virtual Expl 41, paper 2. https://dx.doi.org/10.3809/jvirtex.2011.00294
  76. Mukherjee S, Koyi HA, Talbot CJ (2012) Implications of channel flow analogue models in extrusion of the Higher Himalayan Shear Zone with special reference to the out-of-sequence thrusting. Int J Earth Sci 101:253–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mukherjee S (2015) A review on out-of-sequence deformation in the Himalaya. In: Mukherjee S, Carosi R, van der Beek PA, Mukherjee BK, Robinson DM (eds) Tectonics of the Himalaya. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 412, pp 67–109Google Scholar
  78. O’Brien PJ (2018) Eclogites and other high-pressure rocks in the Himalaya: a review. In: Treloar PJ, Searle MP (eds) Himalayan tectonics: a modern synthesis, Geological Society, London, Special Publications 483. https://doi.org/10.1144/SP483.13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Paces JB, Miller JD (1993) Precise U–Pb ages of Duluth Complex and related mafic inclusions, northeastern Minnesota: geochronological insights into physical, petrogenetic, paleomagnetic, and tectonomagmatic processes associated with the 1.1 Ga midcontinent rift system. J Geophys Res 98:13997–14013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Parrish RR, Hodges KV (1996) Isotopic constraints on the age and provenance of the Lesser and Greater Himalayan sequences, Nepalese Himalaya. Geol Soc Am Bull 108:904–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Paudel LP, Arita K (2002) Locating the Main Central Thrust in central Nepal using lithologic, microstructural and metamorphic criteria. J Nepal Geol Soc 26:29–42Google Scholar
  82. Pognante U, Benna P (1993) Metamorphic zonation, migmatization, and leucogranites along the Everest transect (eastern Nepal and Tibet): record of an exhumation history. In: Treloar PJ, Searle MP (eds) Himalayan tectonics. Geological Society, London, Spec Pub 74:323–340Google Scholar
  83. Rapa G, Mosca P, Groppo C, Rolfo F (2018) Detection of tectonometamorphic discontinuities within the Himalayan orogen: Structural and petrological constraints from the Rasuwa district, central Nepal Himalaya. J Asian Earth Sci 158:266–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Robinson DM, DeCelles PG, Patchett PJ, Garzion CN (2001) The kinematic evolution of the Nepalese Himalaya interpreted from Nd isotopes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 192:507–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rolfo F, Groppo C, Mosca P (2015) Petrological constraints of the ‘Channel Flow’ model in eastern Nepal. In: Mukherjee S, Carosi R, van der Beek PA, Mukherjee BK, Robinson DM (eds) Tectonics of the Himalaya. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 412, pp 177–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rolfo F, Groppo C, Mosca P (2017) Metamorphic CO2 production in calc-silicate rocks from the eastern Himalaya. Italy J Geosci 136:28–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sakai H, Sawada M, Takigami Y, Orihashi Y, Danhara T, Iwano H, Kuwahara Y, Dong Q, Cai H, Li J (2005) Geology of the summit limestone of Mount Qomolangma (Everest) and cooling history of the yellow Band under the Qomolangma detachment. Island Arc 14:297–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sakai H, Iwano H, Danhara T, Takigami Y, Rai SM, Upreti BN, Hirata T (2013) Rift-related origin of the Paleoproterozoic Kuncha Formation, and cooling history of the Kuncha nappe and Taplejung granites, eastern Nepal Lesser Himalaya: a multichronological approach. Island Arc 22:338–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schärer U (1984) The effect of initial 230Th disequilibrium on young U–Pb ages: the Makalu case, Himalaya. Earth Planet Sci Lett 67:191–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schelling D (1992) The tectonostratigraphy and structure of the eastern Nepal Himalaya. Tectonics 11:925–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Searle MP, Rex AJ (1989) Thermal model for the Zanskar Himalaya. J Metamorph Geol 7:127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Searle MP, Simpson RL, Law RD, Parrish RR, Waters DJ (2003) The structual geometry, metamorphic and magmatic evolution of the Everest massif, High Himalaya of Nepal-South Tibet. J Geol Soc Lond 160:345–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Searle MP, Law RD, Godin L, Larson KP, Streule MJ, Cottle JM, Jessup MJ (2008) Defining the Himalayan main central thrust in Nepal. J Geol Soc Lond 165:523–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Searle MP, Cottle JM, Streule MJ, Waters DJ (2010) Crustal melt granites and migmatites along the Himalaya: melt source, segregation, transport and granite emplacement mechanisms. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 472:219–233Google Scholar
  95. Shrestha SB, Shrestha JN, Sharma SR (1984) Geological map of Eastern Nepal, 1:250 000. Ministry of Industry, Department of Mines and Geology, LainchourGoogle Scholar
  96. Simonetti M, Carosi R, Montomoli C, Langone A, D'Addario E, Mammoliti E (2018) Kinematic and geochronological constraints on shear deformation in the Ferriere-Mollières shear zone (Argentera-Mercantour Massif, Western Alps): implications for the evolution of the Southern European Variscan Belt. Int J Earth Sci 107:2163–2189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Simpson RL, Parrish RR, Searle MP, Waters DJ (2000) Two episodes of monazite crystallization during metamorphism and crustal melting in the Everest region of the Nepalese Himalaya. Geology 28:403–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Spear FS, Kohn MJ, Cheney JT (1999) P-T paths from anatectic pelites. Contrib Mineral Petrol 134:17–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Streule MJ, Searle MP, Waters DJ, Horstwood MSA (2010) Metamorphism, melting, and channel flow in the Greater Himalayan Sequence and Makalu leucogranite: Constraints from thermobarometry, metamorphic modeling, and U–Pb geochronology. Tectonics 29:TC5011. doi: 10.1029/2009TC002533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vannay JC, Grasemann B (2001) Himalayan inverted metamorphism and syn-convergence extension a consequence of a general shear extrusion. Geol Magn 138:253–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vannay JC, Hodges KV (1996) Tectonometamorphic evolution of the Himalayan metamorphic core between the Annapurna and Dhaulagiri, central Nepal. J Metamorph Geol 1:635–656Google Scholar
  102. Villa IM, Bucher S, Bousquet R, Kleinhans IC, Schmid SM (2014) Dating polygenetic metamorphic assemblages along a transect across the western Alps. J Petrol 55:803–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Viskupic K, Hodges KV, Bowring SA (2005) Timescales of melt generation and the thermal evolution of the Himalayan metamorphic core, Everest region, eastern Nepal. Contrib Mineral Petrol 149:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wang YH, Zhang LF, Zhang JJ, Wei CJ (2017) The youngest eclogite in central Himalaya: P–T path, U–Pb zircon age and its tectonic implication. Gond Res 41:188–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Warren CJ, Grujic D, Kellett DA, Cottlle J, Jamieson RA, Ghalley KS (2011) Probing the depths of the India-Asia collision: U–Th–Pb monazite chronology of granulites from NW Bhutan. Tectonics.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010TC002738 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Weinburg RF, Hasalová P (2015) Water-fluxed melting of the continental crust: a review. Lithos 234–235:102–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Williams IS (1998) U–Th–Pb geochronology by ion microprobe. In: McKibben MA, Shanks III WC, Ridley WL (eds), Applications of microanalytical techniques to understanding mineralizing processes. Soc Economic Geol Rev 7, pp 1–35Google Scholar
  108. Yin A, Harrison TM (2000) Geologic Evolution of the Himalayan–Tibetan orogen. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 28:211–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Geologische Vereinigung e.V. (GV) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takeshi Imayama
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shoji Uehara
    • 1
  • Harutaka Sakai
    • 2
  • Koshi Yagi
    • 3
  • Chiaki Ikawa
    • 3
  • Keewook Yi
    • 4
  1. 1.Research Institute of Natural SciencesOkayama University of ScienceOkayamaJapan
  2. 2.Emeritus Professor of Kyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Hiruzen Institute for Geology and ChronologyOkayamaJapan
  4. 4.Geochronology TeamKorea Basic Science InstituteChungbukSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations