Advertisement

Outcrop fracture network characterization for unraveling deformation sequence, geomechanical properties distribution, and slope stability in a flysch sequence (Monte Venere Formation, Northern Apennines, Italy)

  • Marco AntonelliniEmail author
  • Pauline N. Mollema
Original Paper
  • 10 Downloads

Abstract

A detailed characterization of outcrop fracture networks in the turbiditic flysch sequence of the Monte Venere Formation (Northern Apennines) together with in situ measurements of rock strength using the Schmidt hammer provided important insights into the sequence of deformation and the slope stability conditions. The inferred sequence of structure formation from oldest to youngest is bedding-parallel cleavage, veins and normal faults, joints, and strike-slip faults (sheared joints). Alteration halos around fractures (joints, splay joints, strike-slip faults, and some normal faults) point out that these structures were conductive to meteoric water during uplift and erosion in the Holocene. Calcite-filled veins without alteration halos are considered local barriers to fluid flow and diffusion. Bedding thickness controls rock fracturing characterization parameters in the Monte Venere Formation. Reactivation in shear of pre-existing structures, however, causes the formation of splay joint clusters that locally increase fracture density contributing to degrade the mechanical strength of the rock. These localized clusters are apparent in detailed outcrop maps but they are usually not detected by the rock fracturing characterization parameters. Our data also imply that the presence of bedding-parallel cleavage is more important than layer thickness in controlling the rock compressive strength and ultimately the peak shear strength along a potentially sliding surface. This study takes closer look at landslide formation in a sloped flysch sequence under Mediterranean climate conditions and allowed to consider a conceptual model for landslide occurrence in which structural discontinuities and meteoric water flow through fracture networks are main triggering factors.

Keywords

Fracture networks In situ rock compressive strength Joint density Fracture flow Landslide hazard Northern Apennines 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Marco Antonellini acknowledges basic research funding (RFO) from the University of Bologna for the fieldwork performed during this study. Excellent reviews by Fabrizio Balsamo and Ferid Dhahri contributed to improve significantly the original manuscript.

Supplementary material

531_2019_1685_MOESM1_ESM.docx (22 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 22 KB)

References

  1. Agliardi F, Crosta GB, Meloni F, Valle C, Rivolta C (2013) Structurally-controlled instability, damage and slope failure in a porphyry rock mass. Tectonophysics 605:34–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2013.05.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agosta F, Ruano P, Rustichelli A, Tondi E, Galindo-Zaldívar J, Sanz de G (2012) Inner structure and deformation mechanisms of normal faults in conglomerates and carbonate grainstones (Granada Basin, Betic Cordillera, Spain): inferences on fault permeability. J Struct Geol 45:4–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2012.04.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allmendinger RW, Cardozo N, Fisher DM (2011) Structural geology algorithms: vectors and tensors. Struct Geol Algorithms Vectors Tensors.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511920202 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anders MH, Laubach SE, Scholz CH (2014) Microfractures: a review. J Struct Geol 69:377–394.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2014.05.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonellini M, Aydin A (1994) Effect of faulting on fluid flow in porous sandstones: petrophysical properties. AAPG Bull 78:355–377Google Scholar
  6. Antonellini M, Aydin A (1995) Effect of faulting on fluid flow in porous sandstones: geometry and spatial distribution. AAPG Bull 79:642–671Google Scholar
  7. Antonellini M, Mollema PN (2000) A natural analog for a fractured and faulted reservoir in dolomite: Triassic Sella Group, northern Italy. AAPG Bull 84:314–344Google Scholar
  8. Antonellini M, Mollema PN (2002) Cataclastic faults in the Loiano sandstones; northern Apennines, Italy. Boll Soc Geol It 121:163–178Google Scholar
  9. Antonellini M, Cilona A, Tondi E, Zambrano M, Agosta F (2014) Fluid flow numerical experiments of faulted porous carbonates, Northwest Sicily (Italy). Mar Pet Geol 55:186–201.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2013.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Antonellini M, Mollema PN, Del Sole L (2017) Application of analytical diffusion models to outcrop observations: implications for mass transport by fluid flow through fractures. Water Resour Res 53:5545–5566.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016WR019864 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arbanas Z, Mihalic S, Grosic M, Dugonjic S, Vivoda M (2010) Brus landslide, translational block sliding in flysch rock mass. In: Proceedings of the European rock mechanics symposium rock mechanics in civil and environmental engineering, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp 635–638Google Scholar
  12. Argnani A, Fontana D, Stefani C, Zuffa GG (2006) Palaeogeography of the Upper Cretaceous–Eocene carbonate turbidites of the Northern Apennines from provenance studies. Geol Soc Spec Publ 262:259–275.  https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2006.262.01.16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aydin A (2000) Fractures, faults, and hydrocarbon entrapment, migration and flow. Mar Pet Geol 17:797–814.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-8172(00)00020-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Aydin A, Basu A (2005) The Schmidt hammer in rock material characterization. Eng Geol 81:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bai T, Pollard DD (2000) Fracture spacing in layered rocks: a new explanation based on the stress transition. J Struct Geol 22:43–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8141(99)00137-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Balsamo F, Storti F, Salvini F, Silva AT, Lima CC (2010) Structural and petrophysical evolution of extensional fault zones in low-porosity, poorly lithified sandstones of the Barreiras Formation, NE Brazil. J Struct Geol 32:1806–1826.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2009.10.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barton N, Bandis S (1990) Review of predictive capabilities of JRC–JCS model in engineering practice. In: Barton N, Stephansson S (eds) Rock joints. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 603–610Google Scholar
  18. Becker A, Gross MR (1996) Mechanism for joint saturation in mechanically layered rocks: an example from southern Israel. Tectonophysics 257:223–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bense VF, Gleeson T, Loveless SE, Bour O, Scibek J (2013) Fault zone hydrogeology. Earth Sci Rev 127:171–192.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.09.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bettelli G, Vannucchi P (2003) Structural style of the off-scraped Ligurian oceanic sequences of the Northern Apennines: new hypothesis concerning the development concerning the development of mélange block-in-matrix fabric. J Struct Geol 25:371–388.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8141(02)00026-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Biavati G (2007) Valutazione empirica dell’efficacia di sistemi drenanti realizzati su 13 frane dell’Appennino emiliano. Giornale di Geol Appl 7:31–42Google Scholar
  22. Binet S, Guglielmi Y, Bertrand C, Mudry J (2007a) Unstable rock slope hydrogeology: insights from the large-scale study of western Argentera-Mercantour hillslopes (South-East France). Bulletin de la Societè Geologique de France 178:159–168.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gssgfbull.178.2.159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Binet S, Jomard H, Lebourg T, Guglielmi Y, Tric E, Bertrand C, Mudry J (2007b) Experimental analysis of groundwater flow through a landslide slip surface using natural and artificial water chemical tracers. Hydrol Process 21:3463–3472.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6579 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Binet S, Spadini L, Bertrand C, Guglielmi Y, Mudry J, Scavia C (2009) Variability of the groundwater sulfate concentration in fractured rock slopes: a tool to identify active unstable areas. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 13:2315–2327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bois T, Bouissou S, Jaboyedoff M (2012) Influence of structural heterogeneities and of large scale topography on imbricate gravitational rock slope failures: new insights from 3-D physical modeling and geomorphological analysis. Tectonophysics 526:147–156.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2011.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bordoni P, Haines J, Di G, Milana G, Augliera P, Cercato M, Martelli L, Cara F et al (2007) Cavola experiment site: geophysical investigations and deployment of a dense seismic array on a landslide. Ann Geophys 50:627–649Google Scholar
  27. Bordoni PG, Di G, Haines AJ, Cara F, Milana G, Rovelli A (2010) Issues in choosing the references to use for spectral ratios from observations and modeling at Cavola Landslide in Northern Italy. Bull Seismol Soc Am 100:1578–1613.  https://doi.org/10.1785/0120090116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bouissou S, Darnault R, Chemenda A, Rolland Y (2012) Evolution of gravity-driven rock slope failure and associated fracturing: geological analysis and numerical modelling. Tectonophysics 526:157–166.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2011.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brideau MA, Stead D (2009) The role of tectonic damage and brittle rock fracture in the development of large rock slope failures. Geomorphology 103:30–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brown ET (2004) The mechanics of discontinua: engineering in discontinuous rock masses. Aust Geomech J 39:1–20Google Scholar
  31. Bruni P (1973) Considerazioni tettoniche e paleogeografiche delle serie dell’Appennino bolognese tra le valli dell’Idice e del Santerno. Memorie della Società’ Geol Italiana 12:157–185Google Scholar
  32. Carlini M, Chelli A, Vescovi P, Artoni A, Clemenzi L, Tellini C, Torelli L (2016) Tectonic control on the development and distribution of large landslides in the Northern Apennines (Italy). Geomorphology 253:425–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cervi F, Berti M, Borgatti L, Ronchetti F, Manenti F, Corsini A (2010) Comparing predictive capability of statistical and deterministic methods for landslide susceptibility mapping: a case study in the northern Apennines (Reggio Emilia Province, Italy). Landslides 7:433–444.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-010-0207-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cibin U, Spadafora E, Zuffa GG, Castellarin A (2001) Continental collision history from arenites of episutural basins in the Northern Apennines, Italy. Bull Geol Soc Am 113:4–19.  https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(2001)113-0004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Collotta T (2003) Landslide hazard evaluation: the landslide hazard curves. J Geotech Geo-environ Eng 129:520–528.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2003)129:6(520) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Conti S, Fontana D (2002) Sediment instability related to fluid venting in Miocene authigenic carbonate deposits of the northern Apennines (Italy). Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 91:1030–1040.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-002-0282-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cooke ML, Pollard DD (1996) Fracture propagation paths under mixed mode loading within rectangular blocks of polymethyl methacrylate. J Geophys Res 101:3387–3400.  https://doi.org/10.1029/95JB02507 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cooke ML, Mollema PN, Pollard DD, Aydin A (1999) Interlayer slip and joint localization in the East Kaibab Monocline, Utah: field evidence and results from numerical modelling. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 169:23–49.  https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2000.169.01.03 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cooke ML, Simo JA, Underwood CA, Rijken P (2006) Mechanical stratigraphic controls on fracture patterns within carbonates and implications for groundwater flow. Sediment Geol 184:225–239.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2005.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cruikshank KM, Zhao G, Johnson AM (1991) Analysis of minor fractures associated with joints and faulted joints. J Struct Geol 13:865–886.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(91)90083-U CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. de Joussineau G, Aydin A (2007) The evolution of the damage zone with fault growth in sandstone and its multiscale characteristics. J Geophys Res 112:B12401.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006jb004711 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. de Joussineau G, Mutlu O, Aydin A, Pollard DD (2007) Characterization of strike-slip fault–splay relationships in sandstone. J Struct Geol 29:1831–1842.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2007.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dewey JF, Helman ML, Knott SD, Turco E, Hutton DHW (1989) Kinematics of the western Mediterranean. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 45:265–283.  https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1989.045.01.15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dhahri F, Benassi R, Mhamdi A, Zeyeni K, Boukadi N (2016) Structural and geomorphological controls of the present-day landslide in the Moulares phosphate mines (western-central Tunisia). Bull Eng Geol Environ 75:1459–1468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Díaz G, Mollema PN, Antonellini M (2015) Fracture patterns and fault development in the pelagic limestones of the Monte Conero anticline (Italy). Italian J Geosci 134:495–512.  https://doi.org/10.3301/IJG.2014.33 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Eichhubl P, Taylor WL, Pollard DD, Aydin A (2004) Paleo-fluid flow and deformation in the Aztec Sandstone at the Valley of Fire, Nevada—evidence for the coupling of hydrogeological, diagenetic, and tectonic processes. Bull Geol Soc Am 116:1120–1136.  https://doi.org/10.1130/B25446.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Eichhubl P, D’Onfro PS, Aydin A, Waters J, McCarty DK (2005) Structure, petrophysics, and diagenesis of shale entrained along a normal fault at Black Diamond Mines, California—implications for fault seal. AAPG Bull 89:1113–1137.  https://doi.org/10.1306/04220504099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Eichhubl P, Davatzes NC, Becker SP (2009) Structural and diagenetic control of fluid migration and cementation along the Moab fault, Utah. AAPG Bull 93:653–681.  https://doi.org/10.1306/02180908080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Engelder T, Geiser P (1980) On the use of regional joint sets as trajectories of paleostress fields during the development of the Appalachian Plateau, New York. J Geophys Res 85:6319–6341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Faulkner DR, Jackson CAL, Lunn RJ, Schlische RW, Shipton ZK, Wibberley CAJ, Withjack MO (2010) A review of recent developments concerning the structure, mechanics and fluid flow properties of fault zones. J Struct Geol 32:1557–1575.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2010.06.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fossen H, Bale A (2007) Deformation bands and their influence on fluid flow. AAPG Bull 91:1685–1700.  https://doi.org/10.1306/07300706146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fossen H, Schultz RA, Shipton ZK, Mair K (2007) Deformation bands in sandstone: a review. J Geol Soc Lond 164:755–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gabrielsen RH, Braathen A (2014) Models of fracture lineaments—joint swarms, fracture corridors and faults in crystalline rocks, and their genetic relations. Tectonophysics 628:26–44.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2014.04.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gale JFW, Laubach SE, Olson JE, Eichhubl P, Fall A (2014) Natural fractures in shale: a review and new observations. AAPG Bull 98:2165–2216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Galeandro A, Doglioni A, Simeone V, Šimůnek J (2014) Analysis of infiltration processes into fractured and swelling soils as triggering factors of landslides. Environ Earth Sci 71:2911–2923.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-013-2666-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gasperi G, Bettelli G, Panini F, Pizziolo M, Bonazzi U, Fioroni C, Fregni P, Vaiani SC (2005) Note Illustrative e Carta Geologia d’Italia 1:50.000, Foglio n. 219 Sassuolo. SELCA, FirenzeGoogle Scholar
  57. Giani GP (1992) Rock slope stability analysis. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  58. Gross MR, Fischer MP, Engelder T, Greenfield RJ (1995) Factors controlling joint spacing in interbedded sedimentary rocks: integrating numerical models with field observations from the Monterey Formation, USA. Geol Soc Spec Publ 92:215–233.  https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1995.092.01.12 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hoek E (1983) Strength of jointed rock masses. Geotechnique 33:187–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hoek E (1986) Practical rock mechanics—developments over the past 25 years. Rock engineering and excavation in an urban environment. In: Proc. conference, Hong Kong, 1986, (Institution of Mining & Metallurgy, London; IMM N. American Publications Center, Brookfield, VT), pp ix–xviGoogle Scholar
  61. Hoek E, Brown ET (1997) Practical estimates of rock mass strength. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 34:1165–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Huang C, Byrne TB, Ouimet WB, Lin CW, Hu JC, Fei LY, Wang YB (2016) Tectonic foliations and the distribution of landslides in the southern Central Range, Taiwan. Tectonophysics 692:203–212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2016.06.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jomard H, Lebourg T, Binet S, Tric E, Hernandez M (2007) Characterization of an internal slope movement structure by hydrogeophysical surveying. Terra Nova 19:48–57.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3121.2006.00712.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Krejc O, Baron I, Bıl M, Hubatka F, Jurova Z, Kirchner K (2002) Slope movements in the Flysch Carpathians of Eastern Czech Republic triggered by extreme rainfalls in 1997: a case study. Phys Chem Earth 27:1567–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lacoste A, Vendeville BC, Loncke L (2011) Influence of combined incision and fluid overpressure on slope stability: experimental modelling and natural applications. J Struct Geol 33:731–742.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2011.01.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lacoste A, Vendeville BC, Mourgues R, Loncke L, Lebacq M (2012) Gravitational instabilities triggered by fluid overpressure and downslope incision—insights from analytical and analogue modelling. J Struct Geol 42:151–162.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2012.05.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Laubach SE, Olson JE, Cross MR (2009) Mechanical and fracture stratigraphy. AAPG Bull 93:1413–1426.  https://doi.org/10.1306/07270909094 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Le Roux O, Schwartz S, Gamond JF et al (2010) Interaction between tectonic and erosion processes on the morphogenesis of an Alpine valley: geological and geophysical investigations in the lower Romanche valley (Belledonne massif, western Alps). Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 99:427–441.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-008-0393-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lebourg T, El B, Hernandez M (2009) Control of slope deformations in high seismic area: results from the Gulf of Corinth observatory site (Greece). Eng Geol 108:295–303.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2009.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Leuratti E, Lucente CC, Medda E, Manzi V, Corsini A, Tosatti G, Ronchetti F, Guerra M (2007) Primi interventi di consolidamento sulle frane dei Boschi di Valoria, Tolara e Lezza Nuova (Val Dolo e Val Dragone, Appennino modenese). Giornale Geol Applicata 7:17–30Google Scholar
  71. Margielewski W (2006) Structural control and types of movements of rock mass in anisotropic rocks: case studies in the Polish Flysch Carpathians. Geomorphology 77:47–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Marroni M, Molli G, Ottria G, Pandolfi L (2001) Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the external liguride units (Northern Apennines, Italy): insights in the pre-collisional history of a fossil ocean-continent transition zone. Geodin Acta 14:307–320.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0985-3111(00)01050-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Martel SJ (2017) Progress in understanding sheeting joints over the past two centuries. J Struct Geol 94:68–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2016.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Martel SJ, Pollard DD (1989) Mechanics of slip and fracture along small faults and simple strike-slip fault zones in granitic rock. J Geophys Res 94:9417–9428.  https://doi.org/10.1029/JB094iB07p09417 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McGinnis RN, Ferrill DA, Morris AP, Smart KJ, Lehrmann D (2017) Mechanical stratigraphic controls on natural fracture spacing and penetration. J Struct Geol 95:160–170.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2017.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mikoš M, Petkovšek A, Majes B (2009) Mechanisms of landslides in over-consolidated clays and flysch. Landslides 6:367–371.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-009-0171-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mollema PN, Antonellini M (1999) Development of strike-slip faults in the dolomites of the Sella Group, Northern Italy. J Struct Geol 21:273–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8141(98)00121-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mourgues R, Costa ACG, Marques FO, Lacoste A, Hildenbrand A (2016) Structural consequences of cohesion in gravitational instabilities triggered by fluid overpressure: analytical derivation and experimental testing. J Struct Geol 87:134–143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2016.04.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. National Research Council (1996) Rock fractures and fluid flow: contemporary understanding and applications. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC.  https://doi.org/10.17226/2309 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Olson JE (1997) Natural fracture pattern characterization using a mechanically-based model constrained by geologic data—moving closer to a predictive tool. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 34:171.e1–171.e12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1365-1609(97)00227-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pahl PJ (1981) Estimating the mean length of discontinuity traces. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 18:221–228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(81)90976-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Palmstrøm A (1982) Volumetric joint count—a successful and simple measure of the degree of rock mass jointing. In: Proc IV int congress int ass eng geology. New Delhi, pp 221–228Google Scholar
  83. Palmstrøm A (1996a) Characterizing rock masses by the RMi for use in practical rock engineering: part 1: the development of the Rock Mass index (RMi). Tunn Undergr Sp Technol 11:175–188.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0886-7798(96)00015-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Palmstrøm A (1996b) Characterizing rock masses by the RMi for use in practical rock engineering, part 2: some practical applications of the rock mass index (RMi). Tunn Undergr Sp Technol 11:287–303.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0886-7798(96)00028-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Palmstrøm A (2001) Measurement and characterization of rock mass jointing. In: Sharma VM, Saxena KR (eds) In-situ characterization of rocks. Balkema Publishers, Lise, pp 10–44Google Scholar
  86. Peacock DCP, Sanderson DJ (2018) Structural analyses and fracture network characterisation: seven pillars of wisdom. Earth Sci Rev 184:13–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pollard DD, Aydin A (1988) Progress in understanding jointing over the past century. Geol Soc Am Bull 100:1181–1204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pollard DD, Aydin A (1990) Progress in understanding jointing over the past century. Spec Pap Geol Soc Am 253:313–336.  https://doi.org/10.1130/SPE253-p313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pollard DD, Segall P (1987) Theoretical displacements and stresses near fractures in rock: with applications to faults, joints, veins, and solution surfaces. In: Atkinson BK (ed) Fracture mechanics of rock. Academic Press, London, pp 277–349.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-066266-1.50013-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Regione Emilia-Romagna (2017) Frane e rischio idrogeologico—Geologia, sismica e suoli—E-R Ambiente. http://ambiente.regione.emilia-romagna.it/geologia/temi/dissesto-idrogeologico. Accessed 09 Aug 2017
  91. Renshaw CE, Pollard DD (1994a) Numerical simulation of fracture set formation: a fracture mechanics model consistent with experimental observations. J Geophys Res 99:9359–9372.  https://doi.org/10.1029/94JB00139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Renshaw CE, Pollard DD (1994b) Are large differential stresses required for straight fracture propagation paths? J Struct Geol 16:817–822.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(94)90147-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Renshaw CE, Pollard DD (1995) An experimentally verified criterion for propagation across unbounded frictional interfaces in brittle, linear elastic materials. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 32:237–249.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(94)00037-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ronchetti F, Borgatti L, Cervi F, Gorgoni C, Piccinini L, Vincenzi V, Corsini A (2009) Groundwater processes in a complex landslide, northern Apennines, Italy. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9:895–904.  https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-9-895-2009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rustichelli A, Torrieri S, Tondi E, Laurita S, Strauss C, Agosta F, Balsamo F (2016) Fracture characteristics in Cretaceous platform and overlying ramp carbonates: an outcrop study from Maiella Mountain (central Italy). Mar Pet Geol 76:68–87.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2016.05.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sandström B, Annersten H, Tullborg EL (2010) Fracture-related hydrothermal alteration of metagranitic rock and associated changes in mineralogy, geochemistry and degree of oxidation: a case study at Forsmark, central Sweden. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 99:1–25.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-008-0369-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schultz RA, Fossen H (2008) Terminology for structural discontinuities. AAPG Bull 92:853–867.  https://doi.org/10.1306/02200807065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Segall P, Pollard DD (1983) Nucleation and growth of strike slip faults in granite. J Geophys Res 88(NB1):555–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Shackleton RJ, Cooke ML, Sussman AJ (2005) Evidence for temporally changing mechanical stratigraphy and effects on joint-network architecture. Geology 33:101–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shanmugam G, Wang Y (2015) The landslide problem. J Palaeogeogr 4:109–166.  https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1261.2015.00071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Stead D, Wolter A (2015) A critical review of rock slope failure mechanisms: the importance of structural geology. J Struct Geol 74:1–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2015.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Stille H, Palmström A (2003) Classification as a tool in rock engineering. Tunn Undergr Sp Technol 18:331–345.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0886-7798(02)00106-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Varnes DJ (1981) The principles and practice of landslide hazard zonation. Bull Int Assoc Eng Geol 23:13–14.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02594720 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Walter T, Schmincke HU (2002) Rifting, recurrent landsliding and Miocene structural reorganization on NW-Tenerife (Canary Islands). Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 91:615–628.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-001-0245-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wendler J, Köster J, Götze J et al (2012) Carbonate diagenesis and feldspar alteration in fracture-related bleaching zones (Buntsandstein, central Germany): possible link to CO2-influenced fluid–mineral reactions. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 101:159–176.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-011-0671-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Willemse EJM, Pollard DD (1998) On the orientation and patterns of wing cracks and solution surfaces at the tips of a sliding flaw or fault. J Geophys Res 103:2427–2438.  https://doi.org/10.1029/97JB01587 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wu H, Pollard DD (1992) Propagation of a set of opening-mode fractures in layered brittle materials under uniaxial strain cycling. J Geophys Res 97:3381–3396.  https://doi.org/10.1029/91JB02857 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wu H, Pollard DD (1995) An experimental study of the relationship between joint spacing and layer thickness. J Struct Geol 17:887–905.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(94)00099-L CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wyllie C, Mah W (2004) Rock slope engineering civil and mining. In: Hoek E, Bray JW (eds) Rock slope engineering. Taylor & Francis Group, LondonGoogle Scholar
  110. Wyllie DC, Mah W (2014) Rock slope engineering, 4th edn. CRC Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  111. Zeng L, Tang X, Qi J, Gong L, Yu F, Wang T (2012) Insight into the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Qaidam Basin, Northwest China from fracture information. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 101:2183–2191.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-012-0779-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Geologische Vereinigung e.V. (GV) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological Geological and Environmental SciencesUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations