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International Journal of Earth Sciences

, Volume 104, Issue 5, pp 1459–1482 | Cite as

Tephra from andesitic Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka, NW Pacific: chronology of explosive eruptions and geochemical fingerprinting of volcanic glass

  • Vera Ponomareva
  • Maxim Portnyagin
  • Maria Pevzner
  • Maarten Blaauw
  • Philip Kyle
  • Alexander Derkachev
Original Paper

Abstract

The ~16-ka-long record of explosive eruptions from Shiveluch volcano (Kamchatka, NW Pacific) is refined using geochemical fingerprinting of tephra and radiocarbon ages. Volcanic glass from 77 prominent Holocene tephras and four Late Glacial tephra packages was analyzed by electron microprobe. Eruption ages were estimated using 113 radiocarbon dates for proximal tephra sequence. These radiocarbon dates were combined with 76 dates for regional Kamchatka marker tephra layers into a single Bayesian framework taking into account the stratigraphic ordering within and between the sites. As a result, we report ~1,700 high-quality glass analyses from Late Glacial–Holocene Shiveluch eruptions of known ages. These define the magmatic evolution of the volcano and provide a reference for correlations with distal fall deposits. Shiveluch tephras represent two major types of magmas, which have been feeding the volcano during the Late Glacial–Holocene time: Baidarny basaltic andesites and Young Shiveluch andesites. Baidarny tephras erupted mostly during the Late Glacial time (~16–12.8 ka BP) but persisted into the Holocene as subordinate admixture to the prevailing Young Shiveluch andesitic tephras (~12.7 ka BP–present). Baidarny basaltic andesite tephras have trachyandesite and trachydacite (SiO2 < 71.5 wt%) glasses. The Young Shiveluch andesite tephras have rhyolitic glasses (SiO2 > 71.5 wt%). Strongly calc-alkaline medium-K characteristics of Shiveluch volcanic glasses along with moderate Cl, CaO and low P2O5 contents permit reliable discrimination of Shiveluch tephras from the majority of other large Holocene tephras of Kamchatka. The Young Shiveluch glasses exhibit wave-like variations in SiO2 contents through time that may reflect alternating periods of high and low frequency/volume of magma supply to deep magma reservoirs beneath the volcano. The compositional variability of Shiveluch glass allows geochemical fingerprinting of individual Shiveluch tephra layers which along with age estimates facilitates their use as a dating tool in paleovolcanological, paleoseismological, paleoenvironmental and archeological studies. Electronic tables accompanying this work offer a tool for statistical correlation of unknown tephras with proximal Shiveluch units taking into account sectors of actual tephra dispersal, eruption size and expected age. Several examples illustrate the effectiveness of the new database. The data are used to assign a few previously enigmatic wide-spread tephras to particular Shiveluch eruptions. Our finding of Shiveluch tephras in sediment cores in the Bering Sea at a distance of ~600 km from the source permits re-assessment of the maximum dispersal distances for Shiveluch tephras and provides links between terrestrial and marine paleoenvironmental records.

Keywords

Explosive eruptions Tephra Volcanic glass Chronology Kamchatka Shiveluch 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Russian–German project KALMAR, funded by the German Ministry of Science and Education (BMBF), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant #13-05-00346) and the Otto Schmidt Laboratory for Polar and Marine Research. The large part of the samples was collected thanks to the field grant from the National Geographic Society. The authors thank Mario Thöner (GEOMAR) for the help with the microprobe analysis, and Natalia Gorbach and Sergei Khubunaya for tephra samples from AD 2001 and 2005 eruptions. Philip Kyle acknowledges support from the Division of Polar Programs, NSF (USA). Thorough reviews of two anonymous reviewers are very much appreciated.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vera Ponomareva
    • 1
  • Maxim Portnyagin
    • 2
    • 3
  • Maria Pevzner
    • 4
  • Maarten Blaauw
    • 5
  • Philip Kyle
    • 6
  • Alexander Derkachev
    • 7
  1. 1.Institute of Volcanology and SeismologyPetropavlovsk-KamchatskyRussia
  2. 2.GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research KielKielGermany
  3. 3.Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical ChemistryMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Geological InstituteMoscowRussia
  5. 5.School of Geography, Archaeology and PalaeoecologyQueen’s University BelfastBelfastUK
  6. 6.Department of Earth and Environmental ScienceNew Mexico Institute of Mining and TechnologySocorroUSA
  7. 7.V. I. Il`ichev Pacific Oceanological InstituteVladivostokRussia

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