Advertisement

International Journal of Earth Sciences

, Volume 103, Issue 2, pp 579–595 | Cite as

The provenance of northern Kalahari Basin sediments and growth history of the southern Congo Craton reconstructed by U–Pb ages of zircons from recent river sands

  • Andreas Gärtner
  • Ulf Linnemann
  • Mandy Hofmann
Original Paper

Abstract

The southern Congo Craton is widely overlain by Meso- to Cenozoic sediments of the northern Kalahari Basin, which hamper any correlation of basement units. The latter are represented by the Archaean Angola and Kasai Blocks, while the southern cratonic margin is framed by several Meso- to Neoproterozoic orogenic belts. For provenance analysis of the sedimentary cover and reconstruction of the main zircon-forming events, we studied zircons from recent sediments of the largest rivers at the southern margin of the Congo Craton. U–Pb zircon ages suggest a major amount of the sediments to originate from E Lufilian and Kibaran Belts, while input from the S Damara Belt seems to increase to the W. Ages related to the Angola Block were only noticed in the westernmost parts of the working area, which is not in accordance with the SE-trending drainage pattern, proposed to have been onset during the Cretaceous. Thus, it is assumed that the Meso- to Cenozoic sedimentary cover extended further west than today prior to the Mesozoic to Neogene uplift of the Angola Block and that subsequent erosion exhumed the basement stepwise from west to east. A recurrent destabilisation of the southern margin of the Congo Craton at ~2.7, 1.9, 1.0 and 0.6 Ga is supposed to be represented by major peaks in the age distribution pattern of the total amount of concordant zircons. This is in accordance with similar studies in adjacent areas. Additionally, the obtained data fit well to several hypothesised major events during the supercontinent cycle.

Keywords

Southern Congo Craton Episodic crustal growth and reworking Pan-African orogeny Northern Kalahari Basin U–Pb zircon dating 

Notes

Acknowledgments

J-P Liégeois and A Wanke are thanked for their constructive and critical reviews in order to improve the manuscript. The authors are very grateful to C Quesada for his help and patience during the entire publishing process.

Supplementary material

531_2013_974_MOESM1_ESM.doc (28 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 28 kb)
531_2013_974_MOESM2_ESM.doc (46 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 46 kb)
531_2013_974_MOESM3_ESM.xls (208 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (XLS 208 kb)
531_2013_974_MOESM4_ESM.xls (198 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (XLS 198 kb)
531_2013_974_MOESM5_ESM.xls (196 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (XLS 196 kb)
531_2013_974_MOESM6_ESM.xls (194 kb)
Supplementary material 6 (XLS 194 kb)
531_2013_974_MOESM7_ESM.xls (212 kb)
Supplementary material 7 (XLS 212 kb)
531_2013_974_MOESM8_ESM.doc (1.2 mb)
Supplementary material 8 (DOC 1221 kb)
531_2013_974_MOESM9_ESM.doc (991 kb)
Supplementary material 9 (DOC 991 kb)
531_2013_974_MOESM10_ESM.doc (920 kb)
Supplementary material 10 (DOC 919 kb)
531_2013_974_MOESM11_ESM.doc (944 kb)
Supplementary material 11 (DOC 943 kb)
531_2013_974_MOESM12_ESM.doc (1.4 mb)
Supplementary material 12 (DOC 1441 kb)

References

  1. Alkmim FF, Martins-Neto MA (2012) Proterozoic first-order sedimentary sequences of the São Francisco craton, eastern Brazil. Mar Petrol Geol 33:127–139Google Scholar
  2. Armstrong RA, Master S, Robb LJ (2005) Geochronology of the Nchanga Granite, and constraints on the maximum age of the Katanga Supergroup, Zambian Copperbelt. J Afr Earth Sci 42:32–40Google Scholar
  3. Artemieva IM, Mooney WD (2001) Thermal thickness and evolution of Precambrian lithosphere: a global study. J Geophys Res 106:16387–16414Google Scholar
  4. Barely ME, Bekker A, Krapež B (2005) Late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic global tectonics, environmental change and the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Earth Planet Sci Lett 238:156–171Google Scholar
  5. Batumike MJ, Cailteux JLH, Kampunzu AB (2007) Lithostratigraphy, basin development, base metal deposits, and regional correlations of the Neoproterozoic Nguba and Kundelungu rock successions, central African Copperbelt. Gondwana Res 11:432–447Google Scholar
  6. Batumike JM, Griffin WL, Belousova EA, Pearson NJ, O’Reilly SY, Shee SR (2008) LAM–ICPMS U–Pb dating of kimberlitic perovskite: eocene–Oligocene kimberlites from the Kundelungu Plateau, D.R. Congo. Earth Planet Sci Lett 267:609–619Google Scholar
  7. Batumike JM, Griffin WL, O’Reilly SY, Belousova EA, Pawlitschek M (2009) Crustal evolution in the central Congo–Kasai Craton, Luebo, D.R. Congo: insights from zircon U–Pb ages, Hf-isotope and trace-element data. Precambrian Res 170:107–115Google Scholar
  8. Becker T, Schreiber U, Kampunzu AB, Armstrong R (2006) Mesoproterozoic rocks of Namibia and their plate tectonic setting. J Afr Earth Sci 46:112–140Google Scholar
  9. Belousova EA, Kostitsyn YA, Griffin WL, Begg GC, O’Reilly SY, Pearson NJ (2010) The growth of the continental crust: constraints from zircon Hf-isotope data. Lithos 3–4:457–468Google Scholar
  10. Binda PL, van Eden JG (1972) Sedimentological evidence on the origin of the Precambrian Great Conglomerate (Kundelungu Tillite), Zambia. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 12:151–168Google Scholar
  11. Bleeker W (2003) The late Archean record: a puzzle in ca. 35 pieces. Lithos 71:99–134Google Scholar
  12. Bradley DC (2011) Secular trends in the geologic record and the supercontinent cycle. Earth Sci Rev 108:16–33Google Scholar
  13. Brandt S, Will TM, Klemd R (2007) Magmatic loading in the Proterozoic Epupa Complex, NW Namibia, as evidenced by ultrahigh-temperature sapphirine bearing orthopyroxene-sillimanite-quartz granulites. Precambrian Res 153:143–178Google Scholar
  14. Buch MW, Rose D (1996) Mineralogy and geochemistry of the sediments of the Etosha Pan Region in northern Namibia: a reconstruction of the depositional environment. J Afr Earth Sci 22(3):355–378Google Scholar
  15. Cahen L, Snelling NJ, Delhal J, Vail JR, Bonhomme M, Ledent D (1984) The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  16. Cailteux JLH, Kampunzu AB, Lerouge C, Kaputo AK, Milesi JP (2005) Genesis of sediment-hosted stratiform copper-cobalt deposits, central African Copperbelt. J Afr Earth Sci 42:134–158Google Scholar
  17. Campbell IH, Allen CM (2008) Formation of supercontinents linked to increases in atmospheric oxygen. Nat Geosci 1:554–558Google Scholar
  18. Catuneanu O, Wopfner H, Eriksson PG, Cairncross B, Rubidge BS, Smith RMH, Hancox PJ (2005) The Karoo basins of south-central Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 43:211–253Google Scholar
  19. Condie KC (2000) Episodic continental growth models: afterthoughts and extensions. Tectonophysics 322:153–162Google Scholar
  20. Condie KC, Aster RC (2010) Episodic zircon age spectra of orogenic granitoids: the supercontinent connection and continental growth. Precambrian Res 180:227–236Google Scholar
  21. Condie KC, Kröner A (2013) The building blocks of continental crust: evidence for a major change in the tectonic setting of continental growth at the end of the Archean. Gondwana Res 23:394–402Google Scholar
  22. Corfu F, Hanchar JM, Hoskin PWO, Kinny P (2003) Atlas of zircon textures. In: Hanchar JM, Hoskin PWO (eds) Zircon. Rev Miner Geochem 53:468–500Google Scholar
  23. Cosi M, De Bonis A, Gosso G, Hunziker J, Martinotti G, Moratto S, Robert JP, Ruhlman F (1992) Late Proterozoic thrust tectonics, high-pressure metamorphism and uranium mineralization in the Domes Area, Lufilian Arc, northwestern Zambia. Precambrian Res 58:215–240Google Scholar
  24. De Carvalho H (1974) Geologia de Angola, 1:1.000.000, 4 sheets. Serviços de Geologia e Minas, Instituto de Investigação Científica. Cª Diamantes de Angola. Empresa de Cobre de Angola, Cª Mineira do Lobito, Petrangol, Angol e Cabinda GuffGoogle Scholar
  25. De Carvalho H, Tassinari C, Alves PH, Guimarães F, Simões MC (2000) Geochronological review of the Precambrian in western Angola: links with Brazil. J Afr Earth Sci 31(2):383–402Google Scholar
  26. De Waele B, Kampunzu AB, Mapani BSE, Tembo F (2006a) The Mesoproterozoic Irumide belt of Zambia. J Afr Earth Sci 46:36–70Google Scholar
  27. De Waele B, Liégeois J-P, Nemchin AA, Tembo F (2006b) Isotopic and geochemical evidence of Proterozoic episodic crustal reworking within the irumide belt of south-central Africa, the southern metacratonic boundary of an Archaean Bangweulu Craton. Precambrian Res 148:225–256Google Scholar
  28. De Waele B, Johnson SP, Pisarevsky SA (2008) Palaeoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic growth and evolution of the eastern Congo Craton: its role in the Rodinia Puzzle. Precambrian Res 160:127–141Google Scholar
  29. Delor C, Theveniaut H, Pato D, Cage M (2007) Esboço litochronologico da República de Angola, a escala de 1:2.000.000. Ministério da Geologia e Minas, Instituto Geológico de Angola, LuandaGoogle Scholar
  30. Dietz V (1973) Experiments on the influence of transport on shape and roundness of heavy minerals. Contrib Sedimentol 1:69–102Google Scholar
  31. Drüppel K, Littmann S, Okrusch M (2000) Geo- und isotopenchemische Untersuchungen der Anorthosite des Kunene-Intrusiv-Komplexes (KIC) in NW-Namibia. Berichte der Deutschen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft. Eur J Miner 12(Suppl):37Google Scholar
  32. Drüppel K, Littmann S, Romer RL, Okrusch M (2007) Petrology and isotope geochemistry of the Mesoproterozoic anorthosite and related rocks of the Kunene Intrusive Complex, NW Namibia. Precambrian Res 156:1–31Google Scholar
  33. Durrheim RJ, Mooney WD (1994) Evolution of the Precambrian lithosphere: seismological and geochemical constraints. J Geophys Res 99:15359–15374Google Scholar
  34. El-Sayed MI (1999) Sedimentological characteristics and morphology of the aeolian sand dunes in the eastern part of the UAE: a case study from Ar Rub’ Al Khali. Sediment Geol 123:219–238Google Scholar
  35. Ernst RE, Wingate MTD, Buchan KL, Li ZX (2008) Global record of 1600–700 Ma Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs): implications for the reconstruction of the proposed Nuna (Columbia) and Rodinia supercontinents. Precambrian Res 160:159–178Google Scholar
  36. Evans DAD (2009) The palaeomagnetically viable, long-lived and all-inclusive Rodinia supercontinent reconstruction. Geol Soc Lond SP 327:371–404Google Scholar
  37. Frimmel HE, Miller RM (2009) Continental rifting. Neoproterozoic to early Palaeozoic evolution of Southwestern Africa. In: Gaucher C, Sial AN, Halverson GP, Frimmel HE (eds) Neoproterozoic–Cambrian tectonics, global change and evolution: a focus on Southwestern Gondwana. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Dev Precambrian Geol 16:153–159Google Scholar
  38. Frimmel HE, Basei MS, Gaucher C (2011) Neoproterozoic geodynamic evolution of SW-Gondwana: a southern African perspective. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 100:323–354Google Scholar
  39. Gärtner A (2011) Morphologische, geochronologische und isotopengeochemische Untersuchungen an rezenten Sedimenten der Elbe. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of DresdenGoogle Scholar
  40. Gärtner A, Linnemann U, Sagawe A, Hofmann M, Ullrich B, Kleber A (2013) Morphology of zircon crystal grains in sediments—characteristics, classifications, definitions. Geologica Saxonica 59:65–73Google Scholar
  41. Gleißner P, Drüppel K, Becker H (2012) Osmium isotopes and highly siderophile element fractionation in the massif-type anorthosites of the Mesoproterozoic Kunene Intrusive Complex, NW Namibia. Chem Geol 302–303:33–47Google Scholar
  42. Goscombe B, Gray DR (2008) Structure and strain variation at mid-crustal levels in a transpressional orogen: a review of Kaoko Belt structure and the character of West Gondwana amalgamation and dispersal. Gondwana Res 13:45–85Google Scholar
  43. Goscombe B, Gray D, Armstrong R, Foster DA, Vogl J (2005) Event geochronology of the Pan-African Kaoko Belt, Namibia. Precambrian Res 140:103–131Google Scholar
  44. Goudie AS (2005) The drainage of Africa since the Cretaceous. Geomorphology 67:437–456Google Scholar
  45. Goudie AS, Warren A, Jones DKC, Cooke RU (1987) The character and possible origins of the aeolian sediments of the Wahiba Sand Sea, Oman. Geogr J 153(2):231–256Google Scholar
  46. Gray DR, Foster DA, Goscombe B, Passchier CW, Trouw RAJ (2006) 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of the Pan-African Damaran Orogen, Namibia, with implications for tectonothermal and geodynamic evolution. Precambrian Res 150:49–72Google Scholar
  47. Haddon IG (2005) The sub-Kalahari geology and tectonic evolution of the Kalahari Basin, southern Africa. PhD Thesis, University of the WitwatersrandGoogle Scholar
  48. Haddon IG, McCarthy TS (2005) The Mesozoic–Cenozoic interior sag basins of Central Africa: the Late-Cretaceous–Cenozoic Kalahari and Okavango basins. J Afr Earth Sci 43:316–333Google Scholar
  49. Haggerty SE, Raber E, Naeser CW (1983) Fission track dating of kimberlitic zircons. Earth Planet Sc Lett 63:41–50Google Scholar
  50. Halverson GP, Hoffman PF, Schrag DP, Maloof AC, Rice AHN (2005) Toward a Neoproterozoic composite carbon-isotope record. Geol Soc Am Bull 117:1181–1207Google Scholar
  51. Hanson RE (2003) Proterozoic geochronology and tectonic evolution of southern Africa. In: Yoshida M, Windley BF, Dasgupta S (eds) Proterozoic East Gondwana: supercontinent assembly and breakup. J Geol Soc Lond 206:427–463Google Scholar
  52. Hanson RE, Wardlaw MS, Wilson TJ, Mwale G (1993) U–Pb zircon ages from the Hook granite massif and Mwembeshi dislocation: constraints on Pan-African deformation, plutonism, and transcurrent shearing in central Zambia. Precambrian Res 63:189–209Google Scholar
  53. Hoal KO, Hoal BG, Griffin WL, Armstrong RA (2000) Characterization of the age and nature of the lithosphere in the Tsumkwe region, Namibia. Commun Geol Surv Namib 12:21–28Google Scholar
  54. Hoffman PF, Hawkins DP, Isachsen CE, Bowring SA (1996) Precise U–Pb zircon ages for early Damaran magmatism in the Summas mountains and Welwitschia inlier, northern Damara belt, Namibia. Commun Geol Surv Namib 11:47–52Google Scholar
  55. Huntsman-Mapila P, Kampunzu AB, Vink B, Ringrose S (2005) Cryptic indicators of provenance from the geochemistry of the Okavango Delta sediments, Botswana. Sediment Geol 174:123–148Google Scholar
  56. Jackson MPA, Hudec MR, Hegarty KA (2005) The great West African tertiary coastal uplift: fact or fiction? A perspective from the Angolan divergent margin. Tectonics 24:TC6014. doi: 10.1029/2005TC001836
  57. Johnson SP, Rivers T (2004) A review of the Mesoproterozoic to early Palaeozoic magmatic and tectonothermal history of central southern Africa: implications for Rodinia and Gondwana reconstructions. Geoscience Africa 2004, Abstr.-Vol., Univ. Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, pp 309–310Google Scholar
  58. Jung S, Hoffer E, Hoernes S (2007) Neo-proterozoic rift-related syenites (Northern Damara Belt, Namibia): geochemical and Nd–Sr–Pb–O isotope constraints for mantle sources and petrogenesis. Lithos 96:415–435Google Scholar
  59. Kampunzu AB, Armstrong R, Modisi MP, Mapeo RBM (1999) The Kibaran Belt in Southwest Africa: ion microprobe U–Pb zircon data and definition of the Kibaran Ngami Belt in Botswana, Namibia and Angola. Gondwana Res 2(4):571–572Google Scholar
  60. Kampunzu AB, Armstrong RA, Modisi MP, Mapeo RBM (2000) Ion microprobe U–Pb ages on detrital zircon grains from the Ghanzi group: implications for the identification of a Kibaran-age crust in northwest Botswana. J Afr Earth Sci 30:579–587Google Scholar
  61. Key RM, Armstrong RA (2000) Geology and geochronology of pre-Katangan igneous and meta-igneous rocks north of the Lufilian Arc in northwest Zambia. Abstr.-Vol, pp 36–37Google Scholar
  62. Key RM, Liyungu AK, Njamu FM, Somwe V, Banda J, Mosley PN, Armstrong RA (2001) The western arm of the Lufilian Arc in NW Zambia and its potential for copper mineralization. J Afr Earth Sci 33:503–528Google Scholar
  63. Kisters AFM, Jordaan LS, Neumaier K (2004) Thrust-related dome structures in the Karibib district and the origin of orthogonal fabric domains in the south Central Zone of the Pan-African Damara belt, Namibia. Precambrian Res 133:283–303Google Scholar
  64. Kokonyangi J, Armstrong R, Kampunzu AB, Yoshida M, Okudaira T (2004) U–Pb zircon geochronology and petrology of granitoids from Mitwaba (Katanga, Congo): implications for the evolution of the Mesoproterozoic Kibaran belt. Precambrian Res 132:79–106 (Geocongress 2000: 27th earth science congress of the GSSA)Google Scholar
  65. Kokonyangi JW, Kampunzu AB, Armstrong R, Yoshida M, Okudaira T, Arima M, Ngulube DA (2006) The Mesoproterozoic Kibaride belt (Katanga, SE DR Congo). J Afr Earth Sci 46:1–35Google Scholar
  66. Kröner A, Rojas-Agramonte Y, Hegner E, Hoffmann K-H, Wingate MTD (2010) SHRIMP zircon dating and Nd isotopic systematics of Palaeoproterozoic migmatic orthogneisses in the Epupa Metamorphic complex of northeastern Namibia. Precambrian Res 183:50–69Google Scholar
  67. Krueger S, Leuschner DC, Ehrmann W, Schmiedl G, Mackensen A, Diekmann B (2008) Ocean circulation patterns and dust supply into the South Atlantic during the last glacial cycle revealed by statistical analysis of kaolinite/chlorite ratios. Mar Geol 253:82–91Google Scholar
  68. Lancaster PJ, Storey CD, Hawkesworth CJ, Dhuime B (2011) Understanding the roles of crustal growth and preservation in the detrital zircon record. Earth Planet Sc Lett 305:405–412Google Scholar
  69. Lawrence RL, Cox R, Mapes RW, Coleman DS (2011) Hydrodynamic fractionation of zircon age populations. Geol Soc Am Bull 123:295–305Google Scholar
  70. Liégeois J-P, Abdelsalam MG, Ennih N, Ouabadi A (2013) Metacraton: Nature, genesis and behavior. Gondwana Res 23:220-237Google Scholar
  71. Lobo-Guerrero Sanz A (2005) Pre- and post-Katangan Granitoids of the Greater Lufilian Arc—geology, geochemistry, geochronology and metallogenetic significance. PhD Thesis, University of the WitwatersrandGoogle Scholar
  72. Luft JL, Chemale F, Armstrong R (2011) Evidence of 1.7- to 1.8-Ga Collisional Arc in the Kaoko Belt, NW Namibia. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 100:305–321Google Scholar
  73. Maslin MA, Pancost RD, Wilson KE, Lewis J, Trauth MH (2012) Three and half million year history of moisture availability of South West Africa: evidence from ODP site 1085 biomarker records. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 317–318:41–47Google Scholar
  74. Master S, Rainaud C, Armstrong RA, Phillips D, Robb LJ (2005) Provenance ages of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup (Central African Copperbelt), with implications for basin evolution. Int J Afr Earth Sci 42:41–60Google Scholar
  75. Mayer A, Hofmann AW, Sinigoi S, Morais E (2004) Mesoproterozoic Sm–Nd and U–Pb ages for the Kunene Anorthosite Complex of SW Angola. Precambrian Res 133:187–206Google Scholar
  76. McCourt S, Armstrong RA, Kampunzu AB, Mapeo RBM, Morais E (2004) New U–Pb SHRIMP ages on zircons from the Lubango region, southwest Angola: insights into the Proterozoic evolution of south-western Africa. Geoscience Africa 2004, Abstr.-Vol., Univ. Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, pp 438–439Google Scholar
  77. McGee B, Halverson GP, Collins AS (2012) Cryogenian rift-related magmatism and sedimentation: south-western Congo Craton, Namibia. J Afr Earth Sci 76:34–49Google Scholar
  78. Meert JG (2012) What’s in a name? The Columbia (Paleopangaea/Nuna) supercontinent. Gondwana Res 21:987–993Google Scholar
  79. Milési J-P, Boutin P, Deschamps Y (2004) Géologie et principales minéralisations d’Afrique centrale [Geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa], 1:4.000.000, 1 sheet. Bureau de recherches géologiques et minières. OrléansGoogle Scholar
  80. Milési J-P, Toteu SF, Deschamps Y, Feybesse JL, Lerouge C, Cocherie A, Penaye J, Tchameni R, Moloto-A-Kenguemba G, Kampunzu HAB, Nicol N, Duguey E, Leistel JM, Saint-Martin M, Ralay F, Heinry C, Bouchot V, Doumnang Mbaigane JC, Kanda Kula V, Chene F, Monthel J, Boutin P, Cailteux J (2006) An overview of the geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa: explanatory note for the 1:4,000,000 map “Geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa”. J Afr Earth Sci 44:571–595Google Scholar
  81. Miller RMcG (1997) The Ovambo Basin of Northern Namibia. In: Shelly (ed) Sedimentary basins of the world, vol 3. African Basins, pp 237–268Google Scholar
  82. Miller RMcG, Schalk KEL (1980) Geological map of South West Africa/Namibia; scale 1:1.000.000, 4 sheets. Geological survey of the Republic of South Africa and South West Africa/Namibia, WindhoekGoogle Scholar
  83. Moore A, Blenkinsop T (2002) The role of mantle plumes in the development of continental-scale drainage patterns: the southern African example revisited. S Afr J Geol 105:353–360Google Scholar
  84. Ngoyi K, Liégeois J-P, Demaiffe D, Dumont P (1991) Age tardi-ubendien (Protérozoïque inférieur) des dômes granitiques de l’arc cuprifère zaïro-zambien. CR Acad Sci Paris 313:83–89Google Scholar
  85. Nikitina LP, Marin YB, Skublov SG, Korolev NM, Saltykova AK, Zinchenko VN, Chissupa HM (2012) U–Pb Age and Geochemistry of Zircon from Mantle Xenoliths of the Katoka and Kat-115 Kimberlitic Pipes (Republic of Angola). Dokl Earth Sci 445:840–844Google Scholar
  86. Oyhantçabal P, Siegesmund S, Wemmer K, Passchier CW (2011) The transpressional connection between Dom Feliciano and Kaoko Belts at 580-550 Ma. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 100:379–390Google Scholar
  87. Pedreira AJ, De Waele B (2008) Contemporaneous evolution of the Palaeoproterozoic–Mesoproterozoic sedimentary basins of the São Francisco–Congo Craton. Geol Soc SP 294:33–48Google Scholar
  88. Pereira E, Tassinari CCG, Rodrigues JF, Van-Dúnem MV (2011) New data on the deposition age of the volcano-sedimentary Chela Group and its Eburnean basement: implications to post-Eburnean crustal evolution of the SW of Angola. Comunicações Geológicas 98:29–40Google Scholar
  89. Pichevin L, Cremer M, Giraudeau J, Bertrand P (2005) A 190 ky record of lithogenic grain-size on Namibian slope: forging a tight link between past wind-strength and coastal upwelling dynamics. Mar Geol 218:81–96Google Scholar
  90. Pirajno F (1994) Mineral resources of anorogenic alkaline complexes in Namibia. Aust J Earth Sci 41:157–168Google Scholar
  91. Porada H, Berhorst V (2000) Towards a new understanding of Neoproterozoic-Early Palæozoic Lufilian and northern Zambezi Belt in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. J Afr Earth Sci 30(3):727–771Google Scholar
  92. Prendergast MD, Wingate MTD (2012) Zircon geochronology of late Archean komatiitic sills and their felsic country rocks, south-central Zimbabwe: a revised age for the Reliance komatiitic event and its implications. Precambrian Res 229:105–124Google Scholar
  93. Pupin J-P (1980) Zircon and granite petrology. Contirb Miner Petrol 73:207–220Google Scholar
  94. Pupin J-P, Persoz F (1999) Le zircon, marquer de mélanges magmatiques à l’origine de granites de l’association subalcaline ferro-potassique. CR Acad Sci II A 328(1):9–16Google Scholar
  95. Rainaud C, Master S, Armstrong RA, Robb LJ (2003) A cryptic Mesoarchean terrane in the basement to the central African Copperbelt. J Geol Soc Lond 160:11–14Google Scholar
  96. Rainaud C, Master S, Armstrong RA, Robb LJ (2005) Geochronology and nature of the Palaeoproterozoic basement in the Central African Copperbelt (Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo), with regional implications. J Afr Earth Sci 42:1–31Google Scholar
  97. Rapela CW, Fanning CM, Casquet C, Pankhurst RJ, Spalletti L, Poiré D, Baldo EG (2011) The Rio de la Plata craton and the adjoining Pan African/brasiliano terranes: their origins and incorporation into south-west Gondwana. Gondwana Res 20:673–690Google Scholar
  98. Reid DL, Cooper AF, Rex DC, Harmer RE (1990) Timing of post-Karoo alkaline volcanism in southern Namibia. Geol Mag 127:427–433Google Scholar
  99. Ringrose S, Huntsman-Mapila P, Downey W, Coetzee S, Fey M, Vanderpost C, Vink B, Kemosidile T, Kolokose D (2008) Diagenesis in Okavango fan and adjacent dune deposits with implications for the record of palaeo-environmental change in Makgadikgadi–Okavango–Zambezi basin, northern Botswana. Geomorphology 101:544–557Google Scholar
  100. Rino S, Komiya T, Windley BF, Katayama I, Motoki A, Hirata T (2004) Major episodic increases of continental crustal growth determined from zircon ages of river sand; implications for mantle overturns in Early Precambrian. Phys Earth Planet 146:369–394Google Scholar
  101. Rino S, Kon Y, Sato W, Maruyama S, Santosh M, Zhao D (2008) The Grenvillian and Pan-African orogens: world’s larges orogenies through geologic time, and their implications on the origin of superplume. Gondwana Res 14:51–72Google Scholar
  102. Robles-Cruz SE, Escayola M, Jackson S, Galí S, Pervov V, Watangua M, Gonçalves A, Carles Melgarejo J (2012) U–Pb SHRIMP geochronology of zircon from the Catoca kimberlite, Angola: implications for diamond exploration. Chem Geol 310–311:137–147Google Scholar
  103. Rollinson HR, Whitehouse M (2011) The growth of the Zimbabwe Craton during the late Archaean: an ion microprobe U–Pb zircon study. J Geol Soc Lond 168:941–952Google Scholar
  104. Schärer U, Berndt J, Scherer EE, Kooijman E, Deutsch A, Klostermann J (2012) Major geological cycles substantiated by U–Pb and εHfi of detrital zircon grains from the Lower Rhine Basin. Chem Geol 294–295:63–74Google Scholar
  105. Schmitt AK, Emmermann R, Trumbull RB, Bühn B, Henjes-Kunst F (2000) Petrogenesis and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Brandberg Complex, Namibia: evidence for a major mantle contribution in metaluminous and peralkaline granites. J Petrol 41:1207–1239Google Scholar
  106. Schmitt RS, Trouw RAJ, Passchier CW, Medeiros SR, Armstrong R (2012) 530 Ma syntectonic syenites and granites in NW Namibia—their relation with collision along the junction of Damara and Kaoko belts. Gondwana Res 21:362–377Google Scholar
  107. Seth B, Kröner A, Mezger K, Nemchin AA, Pidgeon RT, Okrusch M (1998) Archaean to Neoproterozoic magmatic events in the Kaoko belt of NW Namibia and their geodynamic significance. Precambrian Res 92:341–363Google Scholar
  108. Seth B, Armstrong RA, Brandt S, Villa IM, Kramers JD (2003) Mesoproterozoic U–Pb and Pb–Pb ages of granulites in NW Namibia: reconstructing a complete orogenic cycle. Precambrian Res 126:147–168Google Scholar
  109. Seth B, Armstrong RA, Büttner A, Villa IM (2005) Time constraints for Mesoproterozoic upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in NW Namibia: a multi-isotopic approach. Earth Planet Sc Lett 230:355–378Google Scholar
  110. Shi N, Schneider R, Beug H-J, Dupont LM (2001) Southeast trade wind variations during the last 135 kyr: evidence from pollen spectra in eastern South Atlantic sediments. Earth Plante Sci Lett 187:311–321Google Scholar
  111. Singletary SJ, Hanson RE, Martin MW, Crowley JL, Bowring SA, Key RM, Ramokate LV, Direng BB (2003) Geochronology of basement rocks in the Kalahari Desert, Botswana, and implications for regional Proterozoic tectonics. Precambrian Res 121:47–71Google Scholar
  112. Slejko FF, Demarchi G, Morais E (2002) Mineral chemistry and Nd isotopic composition of two anorthositic rocks from the Kunene complex (South Western Angola). J Afr Earth Sci 35:77–88Google Scholar
  113. Söderlund U, Hofmann A, Klausen MB, Olsson JR, Ernst RE, Persson P-O (2012) Towards a complete magmatic barcode for the Zimbabwe craton: Baddeleyite U–Pb dating of regional dolerite dyke swarms and sill complexes. Precambrian Res 183:388–398Google Scholar
  114. Tack L, Wingate MTD, De Waele D, Meert J, Belousava E, Griffin B, Tahon A, Fernandez-Alonso M (2010) The 1375 Ma “Kibaran event” in Central Africa: prominent emplacement of bimodal magmatism under extensional regime. Precambrian Res 180:63–84Google Scholar
  115. Thomas DSG, Shaw PA (1990) The deposition and development of the Kalahari Group sediments, Central Southern Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 10(1–2):187–197Google Scholar
  116. Thover E, D’Agrella-Filho MS, Trindade RIF (2006) Paleomagnetic record of Africa and South America for the 1200–500 Ma interval, and evaluation of Rodinia and Gondwana assemblies. Precambrian Res 147:193–222Google Scholar
  117. Torrealday HI, Hitzman M, Stein HJ, Markley RJ, Armstrong R, Broughton D (2000) Re–Os and U–Pb Dating of the vein-hosted mineralizations at the Kansanshi copper deposit, Northern Zambia. Econ Geol 95(5):1165–1170Google Scholar
  118. Torsvik TH (2003) The Rodinia jigsaw puzzle. Science 300:1379–1381Google Scholar
  119. Veevers JJ (2007) Pan-Gondwanaland post-collisional extension marked by 650–500 Ma alkaline rocks and carbonatites and related detrital zircons: a review. Earth Sci Rev 83:1–47Google Scholar
  120. Walraven F, Rumvegeri BT (1993) Implications of whole-rock Pb–Pb and zircon evaporation dates fort he early metamorphic history of the Kasaï craton, Southern Zaïre. J Afr Earth Sci 16:395–404Google Scholar
  121. Wang X, Dong Z, Zhang J, Qu J, Zhao A (2003) Grain size characteristics of dune sands in the central Taklimakan Sand Sea. Sediment Geol 161:1–14Google Scholar
  122. Wang CY, Campbell IH, Allen CM, Williams IS, Eggins SM (2009) Rate of growth of the preserved North American continental crust: evidence from Hf and O isotopes in Mississippi detrital zircons. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 73:712–728Google Scholar
  123. Wang CY, Campbell IH, Stepanov A, Allen CM, Burtsev IN (2011) Growth rate of the preserved continental crust: II. Constraints from Hf and O isotopes in detrital zircons from Greater Russian Rivers. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75:1308–1345Google Scholar
  124. Wanke H, Wanke A (2007) Lithostratigraphy of the Kalahari Group in northeastern Namibia. J Afr Earth Sci 48:314–328Google Scholar
  125. Wendorff M, Key RM (2009) The relevance of the sedimentary history of the Grand Conglomerat Formation (Central Africa) to the interpretation of the climate during a major Cryogenian glacial event. Precambrian Res 172:127–142Google Scholar
  126. Wigand M, Schmitt AK, Trumbull RB, Villa IM, Emmermann R (2004) Short-lived magmatic activity in anorogenic subvolcanic complex: 40Ar/39Ar and ion microprobe U–Pb zircon dating of the Erongo, Damaraland Province, Namibia. J Volcanol Geoth Res 130:285–305Google Scholar
  127. Yang J, Gao S, Chen C, Tang Y, Yuan H, Gong H, Xie S, Wang J (2009) Episodic crustal growth of North China as revealed by U–Pb age and Hf isotopes of detrital zircons from modern rivers. Geochim Csmochim Acta 73:2660–2673Google Scholar
  128. Yang S, Zhang F, Wang Z (2012) Grain size distribution and age population of detrital zircons from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River system, China. Chem Geol 296–297:26–38Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Gärtner
    • 1
  • Ulf Linnemann
    • 1
  • Mandy Hofmann
    • 1
  1. 1.GeoPlasma Lab, Sektion Geochronologie, Museum für Mineralogie und GeologieSenckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen DresdenDresdenGermany

Personalised recommendations