International Journal of Earth Sciences

, Volume 99, Issue 7, pp 1575–1597 | Cite as

Thermal and exhumation history of the central Rwenzori Mountains, Western Rift of the East African Rift System, Uganda

  • F. U. BauerEmail author
  • U. A. Glasmacher
  • U. Ring
  • A. Schumann
  • B. Nagudi
Original Paper


The Rwenzori Mountains (Mtns) in west Uganda are the highest rift mountains on Earth and rise to more than 5,000 m. We apply low-temperature thermochronology (apatite fission-track (AFT) and apatite (U–Th–Sm)/He (AHe) analysis) for tracking the cooling history of the Rwenzori Mtns. Samples from the central and northern Rwenzoris reveal AFT ages between 195.0 (±8.4) Ma and 85.3 (±5.3) Ma, and AHe ages between 210.0 (±6.0) Ma to 24.9 (±0.5) Ma. Modelled time–temperature paths reflect a protracted cooling history with accelerated cooling in Permo-Triassic and Jurassic times, followed by a long period of constant and slow cooling, than succeeded by a renewed accelerated cooling in the Neogene. During the last 10 Ma, differentiated erosion and surface uplift affected the Rwenzori Mtns, with more pronounced uplift along the western flank. The final rock uplift of the Rwenzori Mtns that partly led to the formation of the recent topography must have been fast and in the near past (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Erosion could not compensate for the latest rock uplift, resulting in Oligocene to Miocene AHe ages.


Low-temperature thermochronology Apatite fission-track Uplift Denudation Rwenzori Mountains Albertine Rift 



We thank the RiftLink research group and our partners from Makerere University for discussion on the Rwenzori geology as well as for the support in the field. We also thank the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST) as well as the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) for supporting fieldwork. Furthermore, we would like to thank Peter W. Reiners and Stefan Nicolescu for analytical assistance and valuable discussions. Matthias Hinderer and Martin Wipf are thanked for their constructive suggestions and comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. For providing the computer code HeFTy we would like to express our thanks to Richard A. Ketcham and Raymond A. Donelick, and to Raymond A. Donelick, allowing using Dpar as a kinetic parameter. ASTER GDEM, product of METI & NASA is thanked for providing their images. We furthermore appreciate the support given by Heiko Gerstenberg and the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle FRM II at Garching, TU München. Acknowledgement is given to the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) for their support (GL 182/9-1) and for funding the project (DFG research unit 703). The University Mainz is gratefully acknowledged for a grant supporting a pilot study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. U. Bauer
    • 1
    Email author
  • U. A. Glasmacher
    • 1
  • U. Ring
    • 2
  • A. Schumann
    • 3
  • B. Nagudi
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Earth SciencesUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand
  3. 3.Geology DepartmentMakerere UniversityKampalaUganda

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