International Journal of Earth Sciences

, Volume 99, Issue 6, pp 1437–1451 | Cite as

Thermal instability of the fluid column in a borehole: application to the Yaxcopoil hole (Mexico)

Original Paper

Abstract

Observational evidence proved that even when a borehole is in “fully” stabilized conditions, temperature data may exhibit certain unrest resembling irregular oscillations in the order of hundredths or (in the extreme case) even tenths of degree. Temperature was monitored in complicated hydrogeological conditions in the Yaxcopoil-1 hole (Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico). Two experiments are reported: (a) 20-day monitoring when a logger was located in the center of the high temperature gradient anomaly produced by the cold wave slowly propagating downwards and (b) simultaneous three-loggers 18-day monitoring with loggers located above, in and below the anomaly. All observed temperature–time series displayed intermittent oscillations of temperature with sharp gradients and large fluctuations over all observed time scales. While the “upper” and “lower” records revealed quasi-periodic temperature variations, the “central” record shows fast temperature oscillations with strong up-and-down reversals, all with amplitudes up to a few tenths of degree. The observed temperature–time series were processed by recurrence and recurrence interval quantification as well as by spectral analyses. It is shown that fluid in a borehole, subject to thermal gradient, is stable, as far as the gradient remains below a certain critical value. At higher Rayleigh numbers, the periodic character of oscillations typical for “quiescent” regime is superseded by stochastic features. This “oscillatory” convection occurs due to instability of the horizontal boundary layers. In the specific case of the Yaxcopoil hole, the time series above and below the cold wave (characterized by relatively lower temperature gradients between 20 and 50 mK/m) contain a clear low frequency component produced by tidal forcing. This component dominates over the high frequency domain (periods from 10–15 to 1 min), which exhibit a scaling behavior. This pattern conspicuously changes in the center part of the cold wave, where the local temperature gradient exceeds 200 mK/m and where tidal forcing composes only ~3% of the signal.

Keywords

Temperature monitoring Borehole convection Recurrence and recurrence interval analyses Spectral analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The problem of borehole temperature monitoring was discussed with several colleagues who all provided valuable comments. The special thanks to Philipp Heidinger (Karlsruhe), Milan Kresl and Robert Kincler (both Prague) who all helped in practical field work and data collection. The software programme placed on the Potsdam University website by Norbert Marwan and on the Chicago University by Charles L. Webber, Jr. proved to be extremely useful for all our calculations. The manuscript was read by two reviewers, both of whom suggested a number of valuable comments, which were thankfully accepted and incorporated when preparing the final version. The support of the Czech participation was provided by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (project GACR 205/06/1181). Many thanks to Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi (UNAM) for his close cooperation.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of GeophysicsAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicPrahaCzech Republic
  2. 2.Geophysics and Environmental Physics Research GroupHungarian Academy of ScienceBudapestHungary

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