Advertisement

International Journal of Earth Sciences

, Volume 98, Issue 5, pp 1027–1052 | Cite as

Geochronological, stable isotopes and fluid inclusion constraints for a premetamorphic development of the intrusive-hosted Björkdal Au deposit, northern Sweden

  • K. Billström
  • C. Broman
  • E. Jonsson
  • C. Recio
  • A. J. Boyce
  • P. Torssander
Original Paper

Abstract

The Björkdal gold deposit, bound to a quartz vein system which is mainly hosted by a quartz-monzodioritic intrusion, is situated at the easternmost part of the 1.9 Ga Skellefte base metal district in the Fennoscandian shield. Three fluid stages may be distinguished, referred to as a “barren” stage, a main gold stage, and a remobilization stage, respectively. From oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence, it is argued that fluids of different origins (magmatic and surface waters) penetrated the ore zone at the inferred stages, but regional metamorphic fluids appear essentially only to have redistributed elements. Early quartz veining took place during a pre-metamorphic stage at ca. 1.88 Ga, as evidenced by unradiogenic galena data and an Sm–Nd scheelite errorchron of 1,915 ± 32 Ma (MSWD = 0.25). Temporarily, the main ore-forming stage was closely related to the first barren stage and took place during a major uplift event close to 1.88 Ga. Although other source rocks cannot be totally ruled out, available isotope data (O, S, Sr and Pb) are seemingly consistent with the view that these elements, and by inference other ore elements, were derived from the host intrusion.

Keywords

Au ore Quartz lode Skellefte district Fennoscandian shield Isotopes Fluid evolution 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper has benefited significantly by numerous discussions with Pär Weihed, Jeanette Bergman Weihed, Ingemar Lundström and the staff at Terra Mining. Previous draft versions have been reviewed by Pasi Eilu, Robert Kerrich, Robert Moritz, Jon Naden and an anonymous journal editor, and their help is gratefully acknowledged. Fredrik Grensman, Ingemar Lundström and Björn Albino have provided samples for this study. Isotope work was financed by NUTEK (Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development) within the frames of the research programme “Ore geology related to prospecting” (PIM).

References

  1. Åberg JA, Weihed P (1999) Petrographic- and chemical characteristics of alteration associated with Au-bearing quartz veins at the Björkdal gold deposit, Skellefte district, northern Sweden. In: Stanley C et al (eds) Proceedings of the 5th Biennial SGA Meeting and the 10th Quadrennial IAGOD symposium, London. UK, 22–25 August 1999. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam/Brookfield, pp 1005–1008Google Scholar
  2. Afifi AM, Kelly WC, Essene EJ (1988) Phase relations among tellurides, sulfides and oxides: I. Thermochemical data and calculated equilibria. Econ Geol 83:377–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albino B, Weihed P (1997) Au-deposits. In: Weihed P, Mäki T (eds) Volcanic hosted massive sulphide deposits and gold deposits in the Skellefte district, Sweden and western Finland. Research and exploration—where do they meet? 4th biennial SGA meeting, August 11–13, 1997, Turku, Finland, excursion guidebook A2. Geological Survey of Finland Guide, vol 41, pp 36–42Google Scholar
  4. Allen RA, Weihed P, Svenson S-Å (1996) Setting of Zn–Cu–Au–Ag massive sulfide deposits in the evolution and facies architecture of the 1.9 Ga marine volcanic arc, Skellefte district, Sweden. Econ Geol 91:1022–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakker RJ (1997) Clathrates: computer programs to calculate fluid inclusion V–X properties using clathrate melting temperatures. Comput Geosci 23: 1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barton PB, Skinner BJ (1979) Sulfide mineral stabilities. In: Barnes HL (ed) Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, 798 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergman J (1992) Structural geology of Grundfors, a quartz vein related gold deposit in the Skellefte district, northern Sweden. Geol Fören Stockh Förh 114:227–234 (nota bene: this journal changed name to GFF from volume 116)Google Scholar
  8. Bergman J, Bergström U, Weihed P (1989) Genesis and structural evolution of early Proterozoic gold lode deposits in the Skellefte district, northern Sweden. In: Extended abstr in Proceedings of the 28th international geological congress, Washington DC, USA, vol 3, pp 459–460Google Scholar
  9. Bergman Weihed J, Bergström U, Billström K, Weihed P (1996) Geology, tectonic setting, and origin of the Paleoproterozoic Boliden Au–Cu–As deposit, Skellefte District, Northern Sweden. Econ Geol 91: 1073–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergman S, Kubler L, Martinsson M (2001) Description of regional geological and geophysical maps of northern Norrbotten county (east of the Caledonian orogen). SGU Ba 56:110 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Bergman S, Persson P-O, Kubler L (2002) U–Pb titanite and zircon ages of the Lina granite at the type locality NW of Gällivare, northern Sweden. SGU C 834:12–17Google Scholar
  12. Billström K (1996) Au concentration processes in the Skellefte ore district, Sweden. GFF 118 (Jubilee issue):A44–A45Google Scholar
  13. Billström K, Vivallo W (1994) Synvolcanic mixing of ore lead and the development of lead isotopic provinces in the Skellefte district, Sweden. Miner Depos 29: 111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Billström K, Weihed P (1996) Age and provenance of host rocks and ores in the Paleoproterozoic Skellefte district, northern Sweden. Econ Geol 91:1054–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Billström K, Broman C, Fallick AE (1995) Björkdal and Boliden—two important Au-rich ore deposits in the Skellefte district, northern Sweden. In: Ihlen P, Pedersen M, Stendal H (eds) Gold mineralization in the Nordic countries and Greenland. Open File Series 95/10, Geological Survey of Greenland, pp 12–15Google Scholar
  16. Billström K, Broman C, Jonsson E (1997) Evidence for a prolonged fluid history at the Björkdal Au deposit, northern Sweden. In: Papunen H (ed) Mineral deposits: research and exploration—where do they meet? Proceedings of the 4th Biennial SGA meeting Turku Finland, 11–13 August 1997. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 153–156Google Scholar
  17. Bodnar RJ (1993) Revised equation and table for determining the freezing point depression of H2O–Nacl solutions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:683–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Broman C (1992) Origin of massive sulfide ores in the Skellefte district, as indicated by fluid inclusions. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis Stockholm University. Meddelanden från Stockholms Universitets institution för Geologi och Geokemi, vol 286, 158 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Broman C, Billström K, Gustavsson K, Fallick AE (1994) Fluid inclusions, stable isotopes and gold deposition at Björkdal, northern Sweden. Miner Depos 29:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Broman C, Bergström U, Lindblom S (1995) Fluid evolution in gold-bearing veins associated with feldspar porphyry dikes at Vinliden in the Skellefte District, northern Sweden. GFF 117:233–244Google Scholar
  21. Cassidy KF, Groves DI, McNaughton NJ (1998) Late-Archean granitoid-hosted lode-gold deposits, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: Deposit characteristics, crustal architecture and implications for ore genesis. Ore Geol Rev 13:65–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Claesson S, Lundqvist T (1995) Origins and ages of Proterozoic granitoids in the Bothnian Basin, central Sweden; isotopic and geochemical constraints. Lithos 36:115–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cole DR, Ripley EM (1998) Oxygen isotope fractionation between chlorite and water from 170–350°C: a preliminary assessment based on partial exchange and fluid/rock experiments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Davis DW, Lowenstein TK, Spencer RJ (1990) Melting behaviour of fluid inclusions in laboratory-grown halite crystals in the systems NaCl–H2O, NaCl–KCl–H2O, NaCl–MgCl2–H2O, and NaCl–CaCl2–H2O. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:591–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elliott RP (1965) Constitution of binary alloys. McGraw Hill, New York, 877 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Fallick AE, Jocelyn J, Hamilton PJ (1987) Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope systematics in Brazilian agates. In: Rodriques-Clemente, Tardy R (eds) Geochemistry and mineral formation in the earth surface. CSIC, Madrid, pp 99–117Google Scholar
  27. Gaál G, Gorbatschev R (1987) An outline of the Precambrian evolution of the Baltic shield. In: Gaál G, Gorbatschev R (eds) Precambrian geology and evolution of the central Baltic shield. Prec Research, vol 35, pp 15–52Google Scholar
  28. Gather B, Blachnik R (1974) Das system gold–wismut–tellur. Z Metallkunde 65(10):653–656Google Scholar
  29. Graham CM, Atkinson J, Harmon RS (1984a) Hydrogen isotope fractionation in the system chlorite–water. In: NERC 6th progress report of research 1981–1984, NERC publication series D, no 25:139 ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Graham CM, Harmon RS, Sheppard SMF (1984b) Experimental hydrogen isotope studies: hydrogen isotope exchange between amphibole and water. Am Mineral 69:128–138Google Scholar
  31. Groves DI, Goldfarb RJ, Gebre-Mariam M, Hagemann SG, Robert F (1998) Orogenic gold deposits: a proposed classification in the context of their crustal distribution and relationship to other gold deposit types. Ore Geol Rev 13:7–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haendel D, Mühle K, Nitzsche H-M, Stiehl G, Wand U (1986) Isotopic variations of the fixed nitrogen in metamorphic rocks. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 50:749–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hedenquist JW, Lowenstern JB (1994) The role of magmas in the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits. Nature 370:519–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Horibe Y, Craig H (1995) D/H fractionation in the system methane–hydrogen–water. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59:5209–5217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kathol B, Weihed P (eds) (2006) Description of regional geological and geophysical maps of the Skellefte District and surrounding areas. SGU Ba, vol 57, 197 ppGoogle Scholar
  36. Ludwig KR (1991) PBDAT: A computer program for processing Pb–U–Th isotope data, version 1.20: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report, pp 88–542Google Scholar
  37. Lundqvist T, Vaasjoki M, Persson P-O (1998) U–Pb ages of plutonic rocks in the Svecofennian Bothnian Basin, central Sweden, and their implications for the Palaeoproterozoic evolution of the Basin. GFF 120:357–364Google Scholar
  38. Lundström I, Albino B (1997) The Björkdal area. In: Weihed P, Mäki T (eds) Volcanic hosted massive sulphide deposits and gold deposits in the Skellefte district, Sweden and western Finland. Research and exploration—where do they meet? Proceedings of the 4th Biennial SGA Meeting, Turku, Finland, excursion guidebook A2. Geological Surv Finland Guide, vol 41, pp 72–75Google Scholar
  39. Lundström I, Anthal I (1999) Map-sheet 23K Boliden, 1:50.000. SGU Ai, pp 110–113Google Scholar
  40. Lundström I, Persson P-O, Bergström U (1999) Indications of early deformational events in the northeastern part of the Skellefte field. Indirect evidence from geologic and radiometric data from the Stavaträsk-Klintån area, Boliden map-sheet. SGU C 831:52–69Google Scholar
  41. Matsuhisa Y, Goldsmith JR, Clayton RN (1979) Oxygen isotope fractionation in the system quartz–albite–anorthite–water. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 43:1131–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McCuaig TC, Kerrich R (1998) P-T-t –deformation-fluid characteristics of lode gold deposits: evidence from alteration systematics. Ore Geol Rev 12:381–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McCrea JM (1950) On the isotopic chemistry of carbonates and a paleotemperature scale. J Chem Phys 18:849–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Möller A, Mezger K, Schenk V (2000) U–Pb dating of metamorphic minerals: Pan-African metamorphism and prolonged slow cooling of high pressure granulites in Tanzania, East Africa. Precambrian Res 35:277–293Google Scholar
  45. Murowchick JB, Barnes HL (1987) Effects of temperature and degree of supersaturation on pyrite morphology. Am Mineral 72:1241–1250Google Scholar
  46. Nicolson D, Rickard D, Jonsson R (1988) Gold distribution in volcanogenic massive sulfide ores, Skellefte district, N. Sweden (abstract). Geol Soc Aust Abstr Ser 23:161–164Google Scholar
  47. Nord AG, Billström K (1982) A system for stable isotope analyses of geological samples. Geol Fören Stockh Förh 104:113–120Google Scholar
  48. Nysten P (1990) Tsumoite from the Björkdal gold deposit, Västerbotten county, northern Sweden. Geol Fören Stockh Förh 112:59–60Google Scholar
  49. Ohmoto H (1972) Systematics of sulfur and carbon isotopes in hydrothermal ore deposits. Econ Geol 67:551–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. O’Neil JR, Clayton RN, Mayeda T (1969) Oxygen isotope fractionation in divalent metal carbonates. J Chem Phys 51:5547–5558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rickard DT, Zweifel H (1975) Genesis of Precambrian sulfide ores, Skellefte District, Sweden. Econ Geol 70:255–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Roberts S, Palmer MR, Waller L (2006) Sm–Nd and REE characteristics of tourmaline and scheelite from the Björkdal gold deposit, northern Sweden: evidence of an intrusion-related gold deposit? Econ Geol 101:1415–1425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Roedder E (1984) Fluid inclusions. Mineralogical Society of America. Rev Mineral 12:644 ppGoogle Scholar
  54. Romer RL, Wright JE (1993) Lead mobilization during tectonic reactivation of the western Baltic Shield. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:2555–2570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sheppard SMF (1986) Characterization and isotopic variations in natural waters. Stable isotopes in high temperature geological processes. Mineralogical Society of America. Rev Mineral 16:165–184Google Scholar
  56. Sorjonen-Ward P (1996) Structural studies at the Björkdal gold deposit and in the Barsele district, northern Sweden. Unpublished company report, Terra Mining AB, 85 ppGoogle Scholar
  57. Stacey JS, Kramer JD (1975) Approximation of terrestrial lead isotope evolution by a two-stage model. Earth Planet Sci Lett 26:207–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Suzuoki T, Epstein S (1976) Hydrogen isotope fractionation between OH-bearing minerals and water. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 40:1229–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Taylor HP Jr (1979) Oxygen and hydrogen isotope relationships in hydrothermal mineral deposits. In: Barnes HL (eds) 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 236–277Google Scholar
  60. Vaasjoki M (1981) The lead isotopic composition of some Finnish galenas. Geol Surv Finl Bull 316:30 ppGoogle Scholar
  61. Van den Kerkhof A, Thiéry R (2001) Carbonic inclusions. Lithos 55:49–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vennemann TW, O´Neil JR (1996) Hydrogen isotope exchange reactions between hydrous minerals and molecular hydrogen: I. A new approach for the determination of hydrogen isotope fractionation at moderate temperatures. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60:2437–2451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wagner T, Jonsson E (2001) Mineralogy of sulfosalt-rich vein-type ores, Boliden massive sulfide deposit, Skellefte district, northern Sweden. Can Mineral 39:855–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Weihed P (1992) Litogeochemistry, metal and alteration zoning in the Proterozoic Tallberg porphyry-type deposit, northern Sweden. J Geochem Explor 42:301–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Weihed P, Bergman J, Bergström U (1992) Metallogeny and tectonic evolution of the Early Proterozoic Skellefte district, northern Sweden. Prec Res 58:143–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Weihed P, Mäki T (eds) (1997) Volcanic hosted massive sulphide and gold deposits in the Skellefte district, Sweden and western Finland. Geol Survey Finland, Guide vol 41, pp 81Google Scholar
  67. Weihed P, Billström K, Persson P-O, Bergman-Weihed J (2002) Relationship between 1.90–1.85 Ga accretionary processes and 1.82–1.80 Ga oblique subduction at the Karelian craton margin, Fennoscandian Shield. GFF 124:163–180Google Scholar
  68. Weihed P, Bergman Weihed J, Sorjonen-Ward P (2003) Structural evolution of the Björkdal gold deposit, Skellefte district, northern Sweden: Implications for Early Proterozoic mesothermal gold in the late stage of the Svecokarelian orogen. Econ Geol 98:1291–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Welin E, Christiansson K, Kähr A-M (1993) Isotopic investigations of metasedimentary and igneous rocks in the Palaeoproterozoic Bothnian Basin, central Sweden. Geol Fören Stockholm Förh 115:285–296Google Scholar
  70. Wesolowski D, Ohmoto H (1986) Calculated oxygen isotope fractionation factors between water and the minerals scheelite and powellite. Econ Geol 81:471–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wikström T (1997) A mineralogical study of gold-bearing quartz veins in the Björkdal mine, Västerbotten county (in Swedish). Unpublished report, Stockholm University, 71 ppGoogle Scholar
  72. Wikström T, Sundblad K (1999) Ore petrology and lead isotopic composition of the gold quartz veins at Björkdal, northern Sweden. In: Ihlen P, Pedersen M, Stendal H (eds) Gold mineralization in the Nordic countries and Greenland. Open File Series 95/10, Geological Survey of Greenland, pp 166–168Google Scholar
  73. Wilkinson JJ, Boyce AJ, Earls G, Fallick AE (1999) Gold remobilization by low temperature brines: evidence from the Curraghinalt gold deposit, Northern Ireland. Econ Geol 94:289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wilson MR, Hamilton PJ, Fallick AE, Aftalion M, Michard A (1985) Granites and Proterozoic crustal evolution in Sweden: evidence from Sm–Nd, U–Pb and O systematics. Earth Planet Sci Lett 72:376–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zartman RE, Doe BR (1981) Plumbotectonics: the model. Tectonophysics 75:135–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zheng YF (1993) Calculation of oxygen isotope fractionation in hydroxyl-bearing silicates. Earth Planet Sci Lett 120:247–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Billström
    • 1
  • C. Broman
    • 2
  • E. Jonsson
    • 3
    • 6
  • C. Recio
    • 4
  • A. J. Boyce
    • 5
  • P. Torssander
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory for Isotope GeologySwedish Museum of Natural HistoryStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Department of Geology and GeochemistryStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Department of MineralogySwedish Museum of Natural HistoryStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Departamento de GeologíaUniversidad de SalamancaSalamancaSpain
  5. 5.SUERCEast KilbrideScotland, UK
  6. 6.Geological Survey of SwedenUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations