International Journal of Earth Sciences

, Volume 97, Issue 1, pp 19–33 | Cite as

Magmatic fabrics and emplacement of the cone-sheet-bearing Knížecí Stolec durbachitic pluton (Moldanubian Unit, Bohemian Massif): implications for mid-crustal reworking of granulitic lower crust in the Central European Variscides

  • Kryštof Verner
  • Jiří Žák
  • Radmila Nahodilová
  • František V. Holub
Original Paper

Abstract

The ∼340 Ma Knížecí Stolec durbachitic pluton was emplaced as a deep-seated cone-sheet-bearing ring complex into the Křišt’anov granulite body (Moldanubian Unit, Bohemian Massif). Prior to the emplacement of the durbachitic magma, the steep sub-concentric metamorphic foliation in the granulite formed due to intense ductile folding during high-grade retrograde metamorphism. Subsequently, the durbachitic pluton intruded discordantly into the granulite at around ∼340 Ma. The steep margin-parallel magmatic fabric in the durbachitic rocks may have recorded intrusive strain during emplacement. After the emplacement, but prior to the final solidification, the pluton was overprinted by the regional flat-lying fabric under lower pressure–temperature conditions (T = 765 ± 53°C; P = 0.76 ± 0.15 GPa). Based on this study and comparison with other ultrapotassic plutons, we suggest that the flat-lying fabrics, widespread throughout the exhumed lower to middle crust (Moldanubian Unit), exhibit major variations in character, intensity, kinematics, and shape of the fabric ellipsoid. These fabrics may have formed at different structural levels and in different parts of the root prior to ~337 Ma. Therefore, we suggest that this apparently “single” orogenic fabric recorded multiple deformation events and heterogenous finite deformation rather than reflecting a single displacement field within the orogenic root.

Keywords

Durbachite Emplacement Exhumation Granulite Moldanubian Unit Pluton 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The thorough reviews and constructive comments by Alfons Berger, Jens C. Grimmer and Rainer Altherr helped to improve the manuscript and are gratefully acknowledged. We also thank Jaroslava Pertoldová for her great support of our work, and Jiří Konopásek and Stanislav Vrána for helpful discussions. The Armed Forces of the Czech Republic and Headquarters of the Boletice Military Training Area are thanked for allowing us to access the field area. This research was funded by Grant No. 271/2005/B-GEO/PrF of the Charles University Grant Agency (to K. Verner), Czech Geological Survey Internal Research Project No. 3233 (to K. Verner), Czech Geological Survey Internal Research Project No. 6201 (to J. Babůrek), and in part also by Grant No. 205/02/0514 of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (to F.V. Holub).

References

  1. Benn K, Paterson SR, Lund SP, Pignotta GS, Kruse S (2001) Magmatic fabrics in batholiths as markers of regional strains and plate kinematics: example of the Cretaceous Mt. Stuart batholith. Phys Chem Earth 26:343–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brandmayr M, Dallmeyer RD, Handler R, Wallbrecher E (1995) Conjugate shear zones in the Southern Bohemian Massif (Austria): implications for Variscan and Alpine tectonothermal activity. Tectonophysics 248:97–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Breiter K, Scharbert S (1998) Latest intrusions of the Eisgarn Pluton (South Bohemia–Northern Waldviertel). Jahr Geol Bund 141:25–37Google Scholar
  4. Burg JP (1999) Ductile structures and instabilities: their implication for Variscan tectonics in the Ardennes. Tectonophysics 309:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Callahan CN, Markley MJ (2003) A record of crustal-scale stress: igneous foliation and lineation in the Mount Waldo Pluton (Waldo County, Maine). J Struct Geol 25:541–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carlier G, Lorand JP, Liegeois JP, Soler P, Carlotto V, Cardenas J (2005) Potassic-ultrapotassic mafic rocks delineate two lithospheric mantle blocks beneath the southern Peruvian Altiplano. Geology 33:601–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carswell DA, O’Brien PJ (1993) Thermobarometry and geotectonic significance of high-pressure granulites—examples from the Moldanubian zone of the Bohemian Massif in lower Austria. J Petrol 34:427–459Google Scholar
  8. Cooke RA (2000) High-pressure/temperature metamorphism in the St. Leonhard Granulite Massif, Austria evidence from intermediate pyroxene-bearing granulites. Int J Earth Sci 89:631–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Drábek M, Stein H (2003) The age of formation of a marble in the Moldanubian Varied group using Re–Os dating of molybdenite (Bohemian massif, Czech Republic). Miner Explor Sus Dev 973–976Google Scholar
  10. Edel JB, Schulmann K, Holub FV (2003) Anticlockwise and clockwise rotations of the Eastern Variscides accommodated by lithospheric wrenching: palaeomagnetic and structural evidence. J Geol Soc London 160:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fiala J, Matějovská O, Vaňková V (1987) Moldanubian granulites: source material and petrogenetic considerations. Neu Jb Miner Abh 157:133–165Google Scholar
  12. Finger F, Roberts MP, Haunschmid B, Schermaier A, Steyrer HP (1997) Variscan granitoids of central Europe: their typology, potential sources and tectonothermal relations. Mineral Petrol 61:67–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Foley SF, Venturelli G, Green DH, Toscani L (1987) The ultrapotassic rocks: characteristics, classification and constraints for petrogenetic models. Earth Sci Rev 24:81–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Franěk J, Schulmann K, Lexa O (2006) Kinematic and rheological model of exhumation of high pressure granulites in the Variscan orogenic root: example of the Blanský les granulite (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic). Mineral Petrol 86:253–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Franke W (1989) Variscan plate tectonics in Central Europe—current ideas and open questions. Tectonophysics 169:221–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Friedl G, von Quadt A, Ochsner A, Finger F (1993) Timing of the Variscan orogeny in the Southern Bohemian Massif (NE-Austria) deduced from new U–Pb and monazite dating. Terra abstracts 5:235–236Google Scholar
  17. Gebauer D, Friedl G (1994) A 1.38 Ga protolith age for the Dobra orthogneiss (Moldanubian zone of the southern Bohemian Massif, NE-Austria): evidence from ion-microprobe (SHRIMP) dating of zircon. J Czech Geol Soc 39:34–35Google Scholar
  18. Gerdes A,Wörner G, Henk A (2000) Post-collisional granite generation and HT-LP metamorphism by radiogenic heating: the Variscan South Bohemian Batholith. J Geol Soc London 157:577–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gleizes G, Leblanc D, Bouchez JL (1997) Variscan granites of the Pyrenees revisited: their role as syntectonic markers of the orogen. Terra Nova 9:38–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gleizes G, Leblanc D, Olivier P, Bouchez JL (2001) Strain partitioning in a pluton during emplacement in transpressional regime: the example of the Neouvielle granite (Pyrenees). Int J Earth Sci 90:325–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Holland TJB, Powell R (1998) An internally consistent thermodynamic data set for phases of petrological interest. J Metamorph Geol 16:309–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holub FV (1997) Ultrapotassic plutonic rocks of the durbachite series in the Bohemian Massif: petrology, geochemistry, and petrogenetic interpretation. Bull Geol Sci Econ Geol Mineral 31:5–26Google Scholar
  23. Holub FV, Rossi P, Cocherie A (1997) Radiometric dating of granitic rocks from the Central Bohemian plutonic complex (Czech Republic): constraints on the chronology of thermal and tectonic events along the Moldanubian-Barrandian boundary. CR Geosci 325:19–26Google Scholar
  24. Hou Z, Tian S, Yuan Z, Xie Y, Yin S, Yi L, Fei H, Yang Z (2006) The Himalayan collision zone carbonatites in western Sichuan, SW China: petrogenesis, mantle source and tectonic implication. Earth Planet Sci Lett 244:234–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jakeš P (1969) Retrogressive changes of granulite-facies rocks—an example from the Bohemian Massif. Spec Publ Geol Soc Australia 2:367–374Google Scholar
  26. Janoušek V, Gerdes A (2003): Timing the magmatic activity within the Central Bohemian Pluton, Czech Republic: conventional U–Pb ages for Sázava and Tábor intrusions and their geotectonic significance. J Czech Geol Soc 48:70–71Google Scholar
  27. Janoušek V, Finger F, Roberts M, Frýda F, Pin C, Dolejš D (2004) Deciphering the petrogenesis of deeply buried granites: whole-rock geochemical constraints on the origin of largely undepleted felsic granulites from the Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif. T Roy Soc Edin Earth Sci 95:141–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Janoušek V, Gerdes A, Vrána S, Finger F, Erban V, Friedl G, Braithwaite C (2006) Low-pressure granulites of the Lišov massif, Southern Bohemia: Viséan metamorphism of Late Devonian plutonic arc rocks. J Petrol 47:705–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Janoušek V, Holub FV (2006) The causal link between HP-HT metamorphism and ultrapotassic magmatism in collisional orogens: case study from the moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif. Proc Geol Assoc (in press)Google Scholar
  30. Johnson SE, Paterson SR, Tate MC (1999) Structure and emplacement history of a multiple-center, cone-sheet–bearing ring complex: the Zarza intrusive complex, Baja California, Mexico. Geol Soc Am Bull 111:607–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Johnson SE, Schmidt KL, Tate MC (2002) Ring complexes in the Peninsular Ranges Batholith, Mexico and the USA: magma plumbing systems in the middle and upper crust. Lithos 61:187–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kalt A, Corfu F, Wijbrans JR (2000) Time calibration of a PT path from a Variscan high-temperature low-pressure metamorphic complex (Bayerische Wald, Germany), and the detection of inherited monazite. Contrib Mineral Petrol 138:143–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Klötzli US, Parrish RR (1996) Zircon U/Pb and Pb/Pb geochronology of the Rastenberg granodiorite, South Bohemian Massif, Austria. Mineral Petrol 58:197–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Konopásek J, Schulmann K (2005) Contrasting Early Carboniferous field geotherms: evidence for accretion of a thickened orogenic root and subducted Saxothuringian crust (Central European Variscides). J Geol Soc London 162:463–470Google Scholar
  35. Kotková J, Harley SL (1999) Formation and evolution of high-pressure leucogranulites: experimental constrains and unresolved issues. Phys Chem Earth 24:299–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kotková J, Schaltegger U, Leichmann J (2003) 338–335 Ma old intrusions in the E Bohemian Massif—a relic of the orogen-wide durbachitic magmatism in European Variscides. J Czech Geol Soc 48:80–81Google Scholar
  37. Kretz (1983) Symbols for rock-forming minerals. Am Mineral 68:277–279Google Scholar
  38. Kröner A, Wendt I, Liew TC, Compston W, Todt W, Fiala W, Vaňková V, Vaněk J (1988) U–Pb zircon and Sm–Nd model ages of high-grade Moldanubian metasediments, Bohemian Massif, Czechoslovakia. Contrib Mineral Petrol 99:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kröner A, O’Brien PJ, Nemchin AA, Pidgeon RT (2000) Zircon ages for high pressure granulites from South Bohemia, Czech Republic, and their connection to Carboniferous high temperature processes. Contrib Mineral Petrol 138:127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Linner M (1996) Metamorphism and partial melting of paragneisses of the Monotonous Group, SE Moldanubicum (Austria). Mineral Petrol 58:215–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lobkowicz M, Štědrá V, Schulmann K (1996) Late-Variscan extensional collapse of the thickened Moldanubian crust in the southern Bohemia. J Czech Geol Soc 43:123–138Google Scholar
  42. Luneburg CM, Lebit HDW (1998) The development of a single cleavage in an area of repeated folding. J Struct Geol 20:1531–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Means WD (1981) The concept of steady-state foliation. Tectonophysics 78:179–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Medaris G, Wang H, Jelínek E, Mihaljevič M, Jakeš P (2005) Characteristics and origins of diverse Variscan peridotites in the Gföhl nappe, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. Lithos 82:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Miller RB, Paterson SR, Lebit HDW, Alsleben H, Lüneburg C (2005) Significance of composite lineations in the mid- to deep crust: a case study from the North Cascades, Washington. J Struct Geol 28:302–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. O’Brien PJ, Rötzler J (2003) High-pressure granulites: formation, recovery of peak conditions and implications for tectonics. J Metamorph Geol 21:3–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Owen JV, Dostal J (1996) Prograde metamorphism and decompression of the Gföhl gneiss, Czech Republic. Lithos 38:259–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pagel M, Leterrier J (1980) The subalkaline potassic magmatism of the Ballons massif (Southern Vosges, France): shoshonitic affinity. Lithos 13:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Paterson SR, Vernon RH, Tobisch O (1989) A review of criteria for identification of magmatic and tectonic foliations in granitoids. J Struct Geol 11:349–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Paterson SR, Fowler TK, Schmidt KL, Yoshinobu AS, Yuan ES, Miller RB (1998) Interpreting magmatic fabric patterns in plutons. Lithos 44:53–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Paterson SR, Onezime J, Teruya L, Žák J (2003) Quadruple-pronged enclaves: their significance for the interpretation of multiple magmatic fabrics in plutons. J Virt Explor 10:15–30Google Scholar
  52. Petrakakis K (1997) Evolution of Moldanubian rocks in Austria: review and synthesis. J Metam Geol 15:203–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pharaoh TC (1999) Palaeozoic terranes and their lithospheric boundaries within the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ): a review. Tectonophysics 314:17–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Powell R, Holland TJB (1988) An internally consistent dataset with uncertainties and correlations; 3, applications to geobarometry, worked examples and a computer program. J Metamorph Geol 6:173–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Powell R, Holland T (1990) Calculated mineral equilibria in the pelite system, KFMASH. Am Mineral 75:367–380Google Scholar
  56. Rajlich P, Synek J, Šarbach M, Schulmann K (1986) Hercynian-thrust related shear zones and deformation of the varied group on the contact of granulites southern Moldanubian, Bohemian Massif. Geol Rundsch 75:665–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schaltegger U (1997) Magma pulses in the Central Variscan Belt: episodic melt generation and emplacement during lithospheric thinning. Terra Nova 9:242–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schaltegger U, Corfu F (1992) The age and source of late Hercynian magmatism in the central Alps: evidence from precise U–Pb ages and initial Hf isotopes. Contrib Mineral Petrol 111:329–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schofield DI, D’Lemos RS (1998) Relationships between syntectonic granite fabrics and regional PTtd paths: an example from the Gander-Avalon boundary of NE Newfoundland. J Struct Geol 20:459–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schulmann K, Kröner A, Hegner E, Wendt I, Konopásek J, Lexa O, Štípská P (2005) Chronological constraints on the pre-orogenic history, burial and exhumation of deep-seated rocks along the eastern margin of the Variscan orogen, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. Am J Sci 305:407–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schulmann K, Lexa O, Thompson AB, Štípská P, Edel JB (2006) Lower crustal channel flow in hot orogens in space and time exemplified by the Variscan Eastern margin. Geolines 20:118–119Google Scholar
  62. Svojtka M, Košler J, Venera Z (2002) Dating granulite—facies structures and the exhumation of lower crust in the Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif. Int J Earth Sci 91:373–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tajčmanová L, Konopásek J, Schulmann K (2006) Thermal evolution of the orogenic lower crust during exhumation within a thickened Moldanubian root of the Variscan belt of Central Europe. J Metamorph Geol 24:119–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tobisch OT, Paterson SR (1988) Analysis and interpretation of composite foliations in areas of progressive deformation. J Struct Geol 10:745–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Twiss RJ and Moores EM (1992) Structural geology. Freeman, San Francisco, pp 1–532Google Scholar
  66. Urban M, Synek J (1995) Moldanubian Zone: Structure. In: Dallmeyer D, Franke W and Weber K (eds) Pre-Permian Geology of the Central and Western Europe. Springer, Berlin, pp 429–424Google Scholar
  67. Van Breemen O, Aftalion M, Bowes DR, Dudek A, Mísař Z, Povondra P, Vrána S (1982) Geochronological studies of the Bohemian Massif (Czechoslovakia) and their significance in the evolution of Central Europe. T Roy Soc Edin, Earth Sci 73:89–108Google Scholar
  68. Verner K, Pertoldová J (2004) Structural and petrological relations among granitoids near Nová Pec (Moldanubian Zone, Bohemian Forest). Geolines 17:98–99Google Scholar
  69. Verner K, Žák J, Hrouda F, Holub FV (2006): Magma emplacement into exhumed lower- to mid-crustal orogenic root: the Jihlava melasyenite pluton, Moldanubian Zone, Bohemian Massif. J Struct Geol 28:1553–1567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Vernon RH (2000) Review of microstructural evidence of magmatic and solid-state flow. El Geosci 5: DOI:10.1007/s10069-000-0002-3Google Scholar
  71. Vrána S (1979) Polyphase shear folding and thrusting in the Moldanubicum of southern Bohemia. Bull Geol Surv Prague 54:75–86Google Scholar
  72. Vrána S (1988) The Moldanubian Zone in Southern Bohemia: polyphase evolution of imbricated crustal and upper mantle segments. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on the Bohemian Massif, Czech Geological Survey, Prague pp 331–336Google Scholar
  73. Vrána S (1989) Perpotassic granulites from Southern Bohemia: a new rock-type derived from partial melting of crustal rocks under upper mantle conditions. Contrib Mineral Petrol 103:510–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vrána S, Blümel P, Petrakakis K (1995) Moldanubian Zone: metamorphic evolution. In: Dallmeyer D, Franke W and Weber K (eds), Pre-Permian Geology of the Central and Western Europe. Springer, Berlin, pp 453–466Google Scholar
  75. Vrána S, Šrámek J (1999): Geological interpretation of detailed gravity survey of the granulite complex in southern Bohemia and its structure. Bull Geol Surv Prague 74:261–277Google Scholar
  76. Vrána S, Bártek J (2005): Retrograde metamorphism in a regional shear zone and related chemical changes: the Kaplice Unit of muscovite-biotite gneisses in the Moldanubian Zone of southern Bohemia, Czech Republic. J Czech Geol Soc 50:43–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wendt I, Kröner A, Fiala J, Todt W (1994) U–Pb zircon and Sm–Nd dating of Moldanubian HP/HT granulites from South Bohemia, Czech Republic. J Geol Soc London 151:83–90Google Scholar
  78. Wenzel Th, Mertz DF, Oberhänsli R, Becker T, Renne PR (1997) Age, geodynamic setting, and mantle enrichment processes of a K-rich intrusion from the Meissen massif (northern Bohemian massif) and implications for related occurrences from the mid-European Hercynian. Geol Rundsch 86:556–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. White RW, Powell R, Holland TJB (2001) Calculation of partial melting equilibria in the system Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCKFMASH). J Metamorph Geol 19:139–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Williams PF (1985) Multiply deformed terrains—problems of correlation. J Struct Geol 7:269–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Willner AP, Sebazungu E, Gerya TV, Maresch WV, Krohe A (2002) Numerical modelling of PT-paths related to rapid exhumation of high-pressure rocks from the crustal root in the Variscan Erzgebirge Dome (Saxony/Germany). J Geodyn 33:281–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Winchester JA (2002) Palaeozoic amalgamation of Central Europe: new results from recent geological and geophysical investigations. Tectonophysics 360:5–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Žák J, Holub FV, Verner K (2005) Tectonic evolution of a continental magmatic arc from transpression in the upper crust to exhumation of mid-crustal orogenic root recorded by episodically emplaced plutons: the Central Bohemian Plutonic Complex (Bohemian Massif). Int J Earth Sci 94:385–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Žák J, Paterson SR, Memeti V (2007) Four magmatic fabrics in the Tuolumne batholith, central Sierra Nevada, California (USA): implications for interpreting fabric patterns in plutons and evolution of magma chambers in the upper crust. Geol Soc Am Bull 119:184–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kryštof Verner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jiří Žák
    • 1
    • 3
  • Radmila Nahodilová
    • 1
  • František V. Holub
    • 2
  1. 1.Czech Geological SurveyPragueCzech Republic
  2. 2.Institute of Petrology and Structural GeologyCharles UniversityPragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Institute of Geology and PaleontologyCharles UniversityPragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations