International Journal of Earth Sciences

, Volume 93, Issue 4, pp 634–644 | Cite as

A Late Pleistocene lacustrine transgression in the Fehmarn Belt, southwestern Baltic Sea

Original Paper

Abstract

In order to reconstruct the late Pleistocene seismic stratigraphy, 550 km of high-density 3.5 kHz sub-bottom seismic-reflection profiles were recorded within a 70 km2 area in the narrow offshore border zone between Germany and Denmark. A depositional unit 3 was analysed for its seismic facies association, and in the central study area mound, oblique, channel, reflection-free, shingled, hummocky, broken and parallel associations occurred. The rims of the association shows mound, oblique, hummocky and minor parallel seismic facies. Stratigraphic control was available from 32 coring sites. In the central study area, unit 3 represents rhythmic layers of silt with fine sand and clay in an overall fining-upward 3 to 5-m-thick sequence. At the rim of the basin, the unit comprises fine sand, silt and rhythmic layers of silt with clay and fine sand. Unit 3 is proposed as having formed during the transgression of a lake, partly in contact with the Baltic Ice Lake, some time between 10.8–10.0 14C ka BP. After 10.0 14C  ka BP the water body stagnated when contact with the Baltic Basin was cut off. Analysis of base level of the subunits implies tectonic activity resulting in subsidence of the central study area which could possibly have influenced the transgressive development.

Keywords

Seismic facies Litho-facies Transgression Baltic Sea The Fehmarn Belt 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The data were placed at our disposal by The Danish Ministry of Transport and the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. The Danish Forest and Nature Agency supported the project. An earlier version of the manuscript benefited from constructive comments by Wolfram Lemke, Warnemünde. We are also very grateful for the constructive reviews by Geoffrey Corner, Tromsö, and Nils Axel Mörner, Stockholm.

References

  1. Bennike O, Jensen JB (1998) Late- and postglacial shore level changes in the southwestern Baltic Sea. Bull Geol Soc Den 45:27–38Google Scholar
  2. Bennike O, Jensen JB, Lemke W (1998) Fauna and flora in submarine early Holocene lake-marl deposits from the south-western Baltic Sea. Holocene 8:353–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berglund BE, Björck S (1995) Late Weichselian and Holocene shore displacement in Blekinge, SE Sweden. Acta Univ Nicolai Copernici Torun 17(92):75-95Google Scholar
  4. Björck S (1979) Late Weichselian stratigraphy of Blekinge, SE Sweden, and water level changes in the Baltic Ice Lake. , PhD Thesis, Department of Quaternary Geology, University of Lund, Lund, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  5. Björck S (1981) A stratigraphic study of Late Weichselian deglaciation, shore displacement and vegetation history in south-eastern Sweden. Fossils Strata 14:1–93Google Scholar
  6. Björck S, Digerfeld G (1986) Late Weichselian–Early Holocene shore displacement west of Mt. Billingen, within the Middle Swedish end moraine zone. Boreas 15:1–18Google Scholar
  7. Björck S, Möller P (1987) Late Weichselian environmental history in south-eastern Sweden during the deglaciation of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Quat Res 28:1–37Google Scholar
  8. Björck S (1987) An answer to Ancylus enigma?: presentation of a working hypothesis. Geol Fören Stockholm Förhand 109:171–176Google Scholar
  9. Björck S (1995) A review of the history of the Baltic Sea, 13.0 ka–8.0 ka. Quat Int 27:19–40Google Scholar
  10. Björck S, Kromer B, Johnsen S, Bennike O, Hammarlund D, Lemdahl G, Possnert G, Rasmussen TL, Wohlfarth B, Hammer CU, Spurk M (1996) Synchronized terrestrial-atmospheric deglacial records around the North Atlantic. Science 274:1155–1160CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Eronen M, Ristaniemin O, Lange D (1990) Analysis of a sediment core from the Mecklenburg Bay, with a discussion on the early Holocene history of the southern Baltic Sea. Geol Fören Stockholm Förhand 12:1–8Google Scholar
  12. Houmark-Nielsen, M., Kjær, K. (2003) Southwest Scandinavia 40–15 kyr BP: paleogeography and environmental change. J Quat Sci 18(8):769–786Google Scholar
  13. Jensen JB, Stecher O (1992) Paraglacial barrier-lagoon development in the Late Pleistocene Baltic Ice Lake, southwestern Baltic. Mar Geol 107:81–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jensen JB, Kuijpers A, Lemke W (1996) Geologisk kort over Danmark, 1:200000. Kortblad Femer Bælt-Arkona Basinet, Sen-Kvartære sedimenter. Danmarks Geol Undersøgelse Kortser 52:1–16Google Scholar
  15. Jensen JB, Bennike O, Witkowski A, Lemke W, Kuijpers A (1997) The Baltic Ice Lake in the south-western Baltic: sequence-, chrono- and biostratigraphy. Boreas 26:217–236Google Scholar
  16. Jensen JB, Bennike O, Witkowski A, Lemke W, Kuijpers A (1999) Early Holocene history of the south-western Baltic Sea: the Ancylus Lake stage. Boreas 28:437–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lagerlund E, Houmark-Nielsen M (1993) Timing and pattern of the last deglaciation in the Kattegat region, south-west Scandinavia. Boreas 22:337–347Google Scholar
  18. Lemke W, Kuijpers A, Hoffmann G, Milkert D, Atzler R (1994) The Darss Sill hydrographic threshold in south-western Baltic: Late Quaternary geology and recent sediment dynamic. Cont Shelf Res 14:847–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lemke W, Kuijpers A (1995) Late Pleistocene and early Holocene palaeogeapgraphy of the Darss Sill area, south-western Baltic. Quat Int 27:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lemke W, Jensen JB, Bennike O, Witkowski A (1997) Sequence stratigraphy of submarine Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits in Mecklenburg Bay, south-western Baltic. Sveriges Geol Undersögning Ca 86:117–122Google Scholar
  21. Lundquist J (1987) Glaciodynamics of the Younger Dryas marginal zone in Scandinavia. Geograf Annal 69(A):305–319Google Scholar
  22. Mitchum Jr RM, Vail PR, Sangree JB (1977) Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level, part 6: stratigraphic interpretation of seismic reflection patterns in depositional sequences. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Mem 26:117–135Google Scholar
  23. Mörner N-A (1969) Eustasy and climatic changes during the last 15,000 Y. Geol Mijnbouw 48:389–399Google Scholar
  24. Novak B, Stoker M (2001) Late Weichselian glacimarine depositional processes in the southern Skagerrak revealed by high-resolution acoustic facies analysis. Mar Geol 178:115–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Novak B (2002) Early Holocene brackish and marine facies and depositional processes in the Fehmarn Belt, between Germany and Denmark, revealed by high resolution seismic facies and lithofacies analysis. Mar Geol 189(3–4):307–321Google Scholar
  26. Novak B, Björck S (2002) Late Pleistocene–early Holocene fluvial facies and depositional processes in the Fehmarn Belt, between Germany and Denmark, revealed by high-resolution seismic and lithofacies analysis. Sedimentology 49:451–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Novak, B. and Björck, S. (2003) Late Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphy in a corridor between Fehmarn, Germany and Lolland, Denmark, revealed by decimeter-scale resolution seismic and lithofacies analysis. 14, Tagung für Ingenieurgeologie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel, Germany, pp 185–195Google Scholar
  28. Strömberg B (1992) The final stage of the Baltic Ice Lake. In: Robertsson, A-M, Ringberg B, Miller U, Brunnberg (eds) Late Quaternary stratigraphy, glacial morphology and environmental changes. Sveriges Geol Undersögningen Ca 81:347–354Google Scholar
  29. Svensson N-O (1989) Late Weichselian and early Holocene shore displacement in the central Baltic, based on stratigraphical and morphological records from eastern Smĺland and Gotland, Sweden. LUNDQUA Thesis no. 25, Department of Quaternary Geology, Lund University, Lund, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  30. Svensson N-O (1991) Late Weichselian and early Holocene shore displacement in the central BalticSea. Quat Int 9:7–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Danish Ministery of Transport, Bundesministerium für Verkehr (1996) Fehmarn Belt feasibility study, coast-to-coast investigations. Danish Geotechnical Institute, LyngbyGoogle Scholar
  32. Winn K, Averdick F-R, Erlenkeuser H, Werner F (1986) Holocene sea-level rise in the western Baltic and the question of isostatic subsidence. Meyniana 38:60–81Google Scholar
  33. Wohlfarth B, Björck S, Possnert G, Lemdahl G, Brunnberg L, Ising J, Olsson S, Svensson N-O (1993) AMS dating the Swedish varved clays of late glacial/interglacial transition and the potential/difficulties of calibrating Late Weichselian absolute chronologies. Boreas 22:113–129Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Quaternary SciencesUniversity of LundLundSweden

Personalised recommendations