Advertisement

Multimedia Systems

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 85–104 | Cite as

Format-independent and metadata-driven media resource adaptation using semantic web technologies

  • Davy Van Deursen
  • Wim Van Lancker
  • Sarah De Bruyne
  • Wesley De Neve
  • Erik Mannens
  • Rik Van de Walle
Original Research Paper

Abstract

Adaptation of media resources is an emerging field due to the growing amount of multimedia content on the one hand and an increasing diversity in usage environments on the other hand. Furthermore, to deal with a plethora of coding and metadata formats, format-independent adaptation systems are important. In this paper, we present a new format-independent adaptation system. The proposed adaptation system relies on a model that takes into account the structural metadata, semantic metadata, and scalability information of media bitstreams. The model is implemented using the web ontology language. Existing coding formats are mapped to the structural part of the model, while existing metadata standards can be linked to the semantic part of the model. Our new adaptation technique, which is called RDF-driven content adaptation, is based on executing SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language queries over instances of the model for media bitstreams. Using different criteria, RDF-driven content adaptation is compared to other adaptation techniques. Next to real-time execution times, RDF-driven content adaptation provides a high abstraction level for the definition of adaptations and allows a seamless integration with existing semantic metadata standards.

Keywords

Format-independency Media content adaptation Multimedia model Semantic Web technologies 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research activities that have been described in this paper were funded by Ghent University, the Interdisciplinary Institute for Broadband Technology (IBBT), the Institute for the Promotion of Innovation by Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT-Flanders), the Fund for Scientific Research-Flanders (FWO-Flanders), and the European Union.

References

  1. 1.
    Amielh, M., Devillers, S.: Multimedia content adaptation with XML. In: Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Multimedia Modeling, pp. 127–145. Amsterdam, The Netherlands (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arndt, R., Troncy, R., Staab, S., Hardman, L., Vacura, M.: COMM: Designing a Well-Founded Multimedia Ontology for the Web. In: 6th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2007). Busan, Korea (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bulterman, D., Grassel, G., Jansen, J., Koivisto, A., Layaïda, N., Michel, T., Mullender, S., Zucker, D. (eds.): Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL 2.1). W3C Recommendation. World Wide Web Consortium (2005). http://www.w3.org/TR/SMIL2/
  4. 4.
    Burnett, I., Pereira, F., Van de Walle, R., Koenen, R. (eds.): The MPEG-21 Book. Wiley, NY (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cimprich, P., et al.: Streaming Transformations for XML (2004). Available on http://stx.sourceforge.net/documents/spec-stx-20040701.html
  6. 6.
    De Bruyne, S., De Schrijver, D., De Neve, W., Van Deursen, D., Van de Walle, R.: Enhanced shot-based video adaptation using MPEG-21 generic bitstream syntax schema. In: Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, 6 pp on CD–rom. Honolulu, Hawai (2007)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Neve, W., Van Deursen, D., De Schrijver, D., De Wolf, K., Lerouge, S., Van de Walle, R.: BFlavor: a harmonized approach to media resource adaptation, inspired by MPEG-21 BSDL and XFlavor. Signal Process. Image Commun. 21(10), 862–889 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    De Neve, W., Van Deursen, D., De Schrijver, D., De Wolf, K., Van de Walle, R.: Using Bitstream Structure Descriptions for the Exploitation of Multi-layered Temporal Scalability in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC’s Base Specification. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Advances in Multimedia Information Processing, vol. 3767, pp. 641–652 (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Decker, S., Melnik, S., van Harmelen, F., Fensel, D., Klein, M.C.A., Broekstra, J., Erdmann, M., Horrocks, I.: The semantic web: the roles of XML and RDF. IEEE Internet Comput 4(5), 63–74 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Devillers, S., Timmerer, C., Heuer, J., Hellwagner, H.: Bitstream Syntax Description-Based Adaptation in Streaming and Constrained Environments. IEEE Trans. Multimedia 7(3), 463–470 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hannuksela, M.M., Wang, Y.K., Gabbouj, M.: Isolated regions in video coding. IEEE Trans. Multimedia 6, 259–267 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hong, D., Eleftheriadis, A.: XFlavor: bridging bits and objects in media representation. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, pp. 4 on CD–rom. Lausanne, Switzerland (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hunter, J.: Adding multimedia to the semantic web—building an MPEG-7 ontology. In: First Semantic Web Working Symposium (SWWS), Proceedings, pp. 261–281. Stanford, USA (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    ISO/IEC: 21000-7:2004 Information Technology—Multimedia Framework (MPEG-21)—Part 7: Digital Item Adaptation (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kay, M.: XSLT Programmers’s Reference, 2nd edn. Wrox Press Ltd., Birmingham (2001)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Klyne, G., Carroll, J.J. (eds.): Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax. W3C Recommendation. World Wide Web Consortium (2004). http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/
  17. 17.
    Lerouge, S., Lambert, P., Van de Walle, R.: Multi-criteria Optimization for Scalable Bitstreams. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Visual Content Processing and Representation, vol. 2849, pp. 122–130 (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Magalhães, J., Pereira, F.: Using MPEG standards for multimedia customization. Signal Process. Image Commun. 19(5), 437–456 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McGuinness, D., van Harmelen, F. (eds.): OWL Web Ontology Language: Overview. W3C Recommendation. World Wide Web Consortium (2004). http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-features/
  20. 20.
    Mukherjee, D., Delfosse, E., Kim, J.G., Wang, Y.: Optimal adaptation decision-taking for terminal and network quality of service. IEEE Trans. Multimedia 7(3), 454–462 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mukherjee, D., Said, A.: Structured scalable meta-formats (SSM) for digital Item adaptation. In: Internet Imaging IV, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 5018 (2003)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ohm, J.R.: Advances in scalable video coding. Proc. IEEE 93(1), 42–56 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Palmer, S.B.: Pondering RDF Path (2003). http://infomesh.net/2003/rdfpath
  24. 24.
    Prud’hommeaux, E., Seaborne, A. (eds.): SPARQL Query Language for RDF. W3C Recommendation. World Wide Web Consortium (2007). http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/
  25. 25.
    Seaborne, A., Manjunath, G.: SPARQL/Update: A Language for Updating RDF Graphs (2008). http://jena.hpl.hp.com/~afs/SPARQL-Update.html
  26. 26.
    Souzis, A.: RxPath: a mapping of RDF to the XPath Data Model. In: Extreme Markup Language 2006. Montreal, Canada (2006)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thomas-Kerr, J., Burnett, I., Ritz, C.: Format-independent multimedia streaming. In: Proceedings of 2006 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), pp. 1509–1512 (2006)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Timmerer, C., Frank, T., Hellwagner, H.: Efficient processing of MPEG-21 metadata in the binary domain. In: Proceedings of SPIE International Symposium ITCom 2005 on Multimedia Systems and Applications VIII. Boston, Massachusetts (2005)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Timmerer, C., Panis, G., Kosch, H., Heuer, J., Hellwagner, H., Hutter, A.: Coding format independent multimedia content adaptation using XML. In: Proceedings of SPIE International Symposium ITCom 2003 on Internet Multimedia Management Systems IV, vol. 5242, pp. 92–103. Orlando (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Van Deursen, D., De Schrijver, D., De Bruyne, S., Van de Walle, R.: Fully format agnostic media resource adaptation using an abstract model for scalable bitstreams. In: Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International conference on Multimedia and Expo, pp. 240–243. Beijing (2007)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Van Lancker, W., De Sutter, R., De Schrijver, D., Van de Walle, R.: A Framework for transformations of XML within the binary domain. In: Proceedings of the IASTED international conference on Internet and Multimedia Systems and Applications, pp. 29–34 on CD–rom. Innsbruck, Austria (2006)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vetro, A., Christopoulos, C., Ebrahimi, T.: Universal multimedia access. IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 20(2), 16 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    W3C Multimedia Semantics Incubator Group: Available on http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/mmsem/
  34. 34.
    Walsh, N.: RDF Twig: accessing RDF graphs in XSLT. In: Extreme Markup Language 2003. Montreal, Canada (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Davy Van Deursen
    • 1
  • Wim Van Lancker
    • 1
  • Sarah De Bruyne
    • 1
  • Wesley De Neve
    • 1
  • Erik Mannens
    • 1
  • Rik Van de Walle
    • 1
  1. 1.Multimedia Lab, Department of Electronics and Information SystemsGhent University-IBBTLedeberg-GhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations