Multimedia Systems

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 127–142 | Cite as

Leveraging user impact: an architecture for secondary screens usage in interactive television

Regular Paper

Abstract

This paper reports on an architecture, and a working implementation, for using secondary screens in the interactive television environment. While there are specific genres and programs that immerse the viewer into the television experience, there are situations in which people perform as well a secondary task, whilst watching. In the living room, people surf the web, use email, and chat using one or many secondary screens. Instead of focusing on unrelated activities to television watching, the architecture presented in this paper aims at related activities, i.e., to leverage the user impact on the content being watched. After a comprehensive literature review and working systems analysis, the requirements for the secondary screen architecture are identified and modelled in the form of a taxonomy. The taxonomy is divided into three high-level categories: control, enrich, and share content. By control we refer to the decision what to consume and where to render it. In addition, the viewer can use the secondary screen for enriching media content and for sharing the enriched material. The architecture is validated based on the taxonomy and by an inspection of the available services. The final intention of our work is to leverage the viewers’ control over the consumed content in our multi-person, multi-device living rooms.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adomavicius G., Tuzhilin A.: Toward the next generation of recommender systems: a survey of the state-of-the-art and possible extensions. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 17(6), 734–749 (2005). doi:10.1109/TKDE.2005.99 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ardissono, L., Kobsa, A., Maybury, M.T. (eds): Personalized Digital Television Targeting Programs to Individual Viewers. Kluwer, Dordrecht (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bernhaupt, R., Obrist, M., Weiss, A., Beck, E., Tscheligi, M.: Trends in the living room and beyond. In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Interactive Television, pp. 146–155 (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bulterman D.C.A., Rultedge L.: SMIL 2.0: Interactive Multimedia for the Web and Mobile Devices. Springer, Berlin (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cesar, P., Chorianopoulos, K.: Interactivity and user participation in the television lifecycle: creating, sharing, and controlling content. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Designing Interactive User Experiences for TV and Video, pp. 125–128 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cesar, P., Bulterman, D.C.A., Geerts, D., Jansen, A.J., Knoche, H., Seager, W.: Enhancing social sharing of videos: fragment, annotate, enrich, and share. In: Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Multimedia, pp. 11–20 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cesar, P., Chorianopoulos, K., Jensen, J.F.: Social television and user interaction. ACM Comput. Entertain. 6(1) (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cesar, P., Vaishnavi, I., Kernchen, R., Meissner, S., Hesselman, C., Boussard, M., Spedalieri, A., Bulterman, D.C.A., Gao, B.: Multimedia adaptation in ubiquitous environments: benefits of structured multimedia documents. In: Proceeding of the ACM Symposium on Document Engineering, pp. 275–284 (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cruickshank L., Tsekleves E., Whitham R., Hill A., Kondo K.: Making interactive TV easier to use: interface design for a second screen approach. Des. J. 10(3), 41–52 (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davis R., Yung D.: Understanding the interactivity between television and mobile commerce. Commun. ACM 48(7), 103–105 (2005). doi:10.1145/1070838.1070869 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dearman, D., Pierce, J.S.: It’s on my other computer!: computing with multiple devices. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human factors in Computing Systems, pp. 767–776 (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fallahkhair, S., Pemberton, L., Griffiths, R.: Dual device user interface design for ubiquitous language learning: mobile phone and interactive television (iTV). In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education, pp. 85–92 (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    House, N.V., Davis, M., Ames, M., Finn, M., Viswanathan, V.: The uses of personal networked digital imaging: an empirical study of cameraphone photos and sharing. In: Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1853–1856 (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Karanastasi A., Kazasis F.G., Christodoulakis S.: A natural language model for managing TV-anytime information in mobile environments. Pers. Ubiquitous Comput. 9, 262–272 (2005). doi:10.1007/s00779-004-0330-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Keukelaere, F.D., Sutter, R.D., de Walle, R.V.: MPEG-21 session mobility on mobile devices. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Internet Computing, pp. 287–293 (2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kindberg, T., Spasojevic, M., Fleck, R., Sellen, A.: I saw this and thought of you: some social uses of camera phones. In: Extended Abstracts in Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1545–1548 (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Knoche, H., McCarthy, J.D., Sasse, M.A.: Can small be beautiful? assessing image resolution requirements for mobile TV. In: Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Multimedia, pp. 829–838 (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mate, S., Chandra, U., Curcio, I.D.D.: Movable-multimedia: session mobility in ubiquitous computing ecosystem. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Miller, S.: Taking on the masses with mobile messaging TV. Comput. Entertain. 3(2) (2005)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    O’Hara, K., Mitchell, A.S., Vorbau, A.: Consuming video on mobile devices. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human factors in Computing Systems, pp. 857–866 (2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Park, J., Blythe, M., Monk, A., Grayson, D.: Sharable digital TV: relating ethnography to design through un-useless product suggestions. In: Extended Abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, pp. 1199–1204 (2006)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Robertson, S., Wharton, C., Ashworth, C., Franzke, M.: Dual device user interface design: PDAs and interactive television. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 79–86 (1996)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Seager, W., Knoche, H., Sasse, M.: TV-centricity—requirements gathering for triple play services. In: Adjunct Proceedings of the European Conference on Interactive Television, pp. 274–278 (2007)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shacham, R., Schulzrinne, H., Thakolsri, S., Kellerer, W.: Ubiquitous device personalization and use: the next generation of IP multimedia communications. ACM Trans. Multimed. Comput. Commun. Appl. 3(2) (2007)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Taylor, A.S., Harper, R.: Age-old practices in the ‘New World’: a study of gift-giving between teenage mobile phone users. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 439–446 (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pablo Cesar
    • 1
  • Dick C. A. Bulterman
    • 1
  • Jack Jansen
    • 1
  1. 1.CWI: Centrum voor Wiskunde en InformaticaAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations