Multimedia Systems

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 205–221 | Cite as

Delivering relative differentiated services in future high-speed networks using hierarchical dynamic deficit round robin



With the increasing deployment of real-time audio/video services over the Internet, provision of quality of service (QoS) has attracted much attention. When the line rate of future networks upgrades to multi-terabits per second, if routers/switches intend to deliver differentiated services through packet scheduling, the reduction of computational overhead and elimination of bottleneck resulting from memory latency will both become important factors. In addition, the decrease of average queueing delay and provision of small delays for short packets are two further critical factors influencing the delivery of better QoS for real-time applications. The advanced waiting time priority (AWTP) is a timestamp-based packet scheduler which is enhanced from the well-known WTP. Although AWTP considers the effect of packet size, the latency resulting from timestamp access and a great quantity of computational overhead may result in bottlenecks for AWTP being deployed over high-speed links. Many existing schedulers have the same problems. We propose a multi-level hierarchical dynamic deficit round-robin (MLHDDRR) scheduling scheme which is enhanced from the existing dynamic deficit round-robin scheduler. The new scheme can resolve these issues and efficiently provide relative differentiated services under a variety of load conditions. Besides, MLHDDRR can also protect the highest priority traffic from significant performance degradation due to bursts of low-priority traffic. We compare the performance of AWTP with the proposed scheme. Extensive simulation results and complexity analysis are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of MLHDDRR.


Relative differentiated services Quality of service Packet scheduling Dynamic deficit round-robin Proportional delay differentiation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    James, K.W., Yun, K.Y.: Supporting quality of service in a terabit switch. In: Proceeding of the IEEE International Conference on Performance, Computing, and Communications, 20–22 February 2000, pp. 55–61Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yamakoshi, K., Oki, E., Yamanaka, N.: Dynamic deficit round-robin scheduler for 5-Tb/s switch using wavelength routing. Merging Optical and IP Technologies Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 26–29 May 2002, pp. 204–208Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blake, S. et al.: An architecture for differentiated services. RFC2475, (1998)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dovrolis C., Stiliadis D. and Ramanathan P. (2002). Proportional differentiated services: delay differentiation and packet scheduling. IEEE ACM Trans. Netw. 10: 12–26 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lai Y.C. and Li W.H. (2003). A novel scheduler for proportional delay differentiation by considering packet transmission time. IEEE Commun. Lett. 7: 189–191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lai Y.C. and Li W.H. (2003). High-performance scheduler to achieve proportional delay differentiation. IEE Proc. Commun. 150(3): pp. 153–158 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lai Y.C. (2004). Packet schedulers to provide proportional delay differentiation and reduce packet queueing delay simultaneously. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. 4: 1968–1972 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Leung M.K.H., Lui J.C.S. and Yau D.K.Y. (2001). Adaptive proportional delay differentiated services: characterization and performance evaluation. IEEE ACM Trans. Netw. 9: 801–817 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li, C.-C., Tsao, S.-L., Chen, M.C., Sun, Y., Huang, Y.-M.: Proportional delay differentiation service based on weighted fair queuing. In: Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, pp. 418–423 (2000)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li, Z.G., Chen, C., Soh, Y.C.: Relative differentiated delay service: time varying deficit round robin. In: 5th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, 6, pp. 5608–5612 (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Michalas, A., Fafali, P., Louta, M., Loumos, V.: Proportional delay differentiation employing the CBQ service discipline. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Telecommunications, 2, 11–13 June 2003, pp. 483–489Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Palmieri, F.: Improving the performance in multimedia streaming networks: a differentiated service approach. The 4th EURASIP Conference on Video/Image Processing and Multimedia Communications, 2, pp. 841–849 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wei, J., Li, Q., Xu, C.-Z.: Virtual Length: a new packet scheduling algorithm for proportional delay differentiation. The 12th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, 20–22 October 2003, pp. 331–336Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wei, J., Xu, C.-Z., Zhou, X.: (2004) A robust packet scheduling algorithm for proportional delay differentiation services. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. 2, 29 November–3 December 2004, pp. 697–701Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dovrolis C. and Ramanathan P. (1999). A case for relative differentiated services and the proportional differentiation model. IEEE Netw 13: pp. 26–34 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Patchararungruang S., Halgamuge S.K. and Shenoy N. (2005). Optimized rule-based delay proportion adjustment for proportional differentiated services. IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 23(2): 261–276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Parish D.J., Bharadia K., Larkum A., Phillips I.W. and Oliver M.A. (2003). Using packet size distributions to identify real-time networked applications. IEE Proc. Commun. 150: 221–227 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pollin, S., Motamedi, A., Bahai, A., Catthoor, F., Van der Perre, L.: Delay improvement of IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function using size-based scheduling. In: 2005 IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC 2005, 5, 16–20 May 2005, pp. 3484–3488Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shreedhar M. and Varghese G. (1996). Efficient fair queuing using deficit round-robin. IEEE ACM Trans. Netw. 4: 375–385 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chao H.J. (2002). Next generation routers. Proc. IEEE 90(9): 1518–1558 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mushtaq, S.A., Rizvi, A.A.: Statistical analysis and mathematical modeling of network (segment) traffic. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Emerging Technologies, 17–18 September 2005, pp. 246–251Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    UCB/LBNL/ISI/VINT Project, Network simulator (ns) version 2 software. [Online]. Available: Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xiao X., Telkamp T., Fineberg V., Cheng C. and Ni L.M. (2002). A practical approach for providing QoS in the Internet backbone. Commun. Mag. IEEE 40(12): 56–62 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mao, J., Moh, W.M., Wei, B.: PQWRR scheduling algorithm in supporting of DiffServ. In: Proceeding of 2001 IEEE International Conference on Communications, 3, 11–14 June 2001, pp. 679–684Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Elhanany I., Kahane M. and Sadot D. (2001). Packet scheduling in next-generation multiterabit networks. Computer 34(4): 104–106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Korkmaz T. and Krunz M.M. (2003). Routing multimedia traffic with QoS guarantees. IEEE Trans. Multimedia 5(3): 429–443 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gao, K., Gao, W., He, S., Gao, P., Zhang, Y.: Real-time scheduling on scalable media stream delivery. In: Proceedings of 2003 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2, 25–28 May 2003, pp. II-824–II-827Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    He, Y., Wu, F., Li, S., Zhong, Y., Yang, S.: H.26L-based fine granularity scalable video coding. In: IEEE International Symposium on Circuit and Systems, 4, 26–29 May 2002, pp. IV-548–IV-551Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sreenan C.J., Chen J.-C., Agrawal P. and Narendran B. (2000). Delay reduction techniques for playout buffering. IEEE Trans. Multimedia 2: 88–100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Computer ScienceNational Chung-Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.Department of Information ManagementNan-Kai Institute of TechnologyNantouTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations