Advertisement

Multimedia Systems

, Volume 12, Issue 4–5, pp 403–421 | Cite as

User-author centered multimedia building blocks

  • André Santanchè
  • Claudia Bauzer Medeiros
  • Gilberto Zonta PastorelloJr
Regular paper

Abstract

The advances of multimedia models and tools popularized the access and production of multimedia contents: in this new scenario, there is no longer a clear distinction between authors and end-users of a production. These user-authors often work in a collaborative way. As end-users, they collectively participate in interactive environments, consuming multimedia artifacts. In their authors’ role, instead of starting from scratch, they often reuse others’ productions, which can be decomposed, fusioned and transformed to meet their goals. Since the need for sharing and adapting productions is felt by many communities, there has been a proliferation of standards and mechanisms to exchange complex digital objects, for distinct application domains. However, these initiatives have created another level of complexity, since people have to define which share/ reuse solution they want to adopt, and may even have to resort to programming tasks. They also lack effective strategies to combine these reused artifacts. This paper presents a solution to this demand, based on a user-author centered multimedia building block model—the digital content component (DCC). DCCs upgrade the notion of digital objects to digital components, as they homogenously wrap any kind of digital content (e.g., multimedia artifacts, software) inside a single component abstraction. The model is fully supported by a software infrastructure, which exploits the model’s semantic power to automate low level technical activities, thereby freeing user-authors to concentrate on creative tasks. Model and infrastructure improve recent research initiatives to standardize the means of sharing and reuse domain specific digital contents. The paper’s contributions are illustrated using examples implemented in a DCC-based authoring tool, in real life situations.

Keywords

Content composition Ontology-based annotation Digital content component Multimedia authoring Reusable content Reusable components 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    ADL: Sharable content object reference model (SCORM) 2004—overview, 2nd edn. www.adlnet.org/screens/shares/ dsp_displayfile.cfm?fileid=992, accessed on 11/2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alonso G., et al. (2004) Web Services—Concepts, Architectures and Applications. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Apple Computer Inc.: OpenDoc Programmer’s Guide for the Mac OS. Apple Press (1996)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bekaert J., De Kooning E., Van de Walle R. (2005) Packaging models for the storage and distribution of complex digital objects in archival information systems: a review of MPEG-21 DID principles. Multimedia Syst. 10(4): 286–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bolour, A.: Notes on the eclipse plug-in architecture. www. eclipse.org/articles/Article-Plug-in-architecture/plugin_architecture.html, accessed on 06/2005 (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brockschmidt, K.: Inside OLE, 2nd edn. Microsoft Press (1995)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bulterman D., Hardman L. (2005) Structured multimedia authoring. ACM Trans. Multimedia Comput. Commun. Appl. 1(1): 89–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burnett I., Davis S., Drury G. (2005) MPEG-21 digital item declaration and identification-principles and compression. IEEE Trans. Multimedia 7(3): 400–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burnett I., Van de Walle R., Hill K., Bormans J., Pereira F. (2003) MPEG-21: goals and achievements. Multimedia 10, 60–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    CCSDS: Reference model for an open archival information system (OAIS)—blue book. Technical Report CCSDS 650.0-B-1. www.ccsds.org/CCSDS/documents/650x0b1.pdf, accessed on 11/2004 (2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chinnici, R., et al.: Web services description language (WSDL) version 2.0 part 1: core language—W3C working draft, 3 August 2004. www.w3.org/TR/2004/WD-wsdl20-20040803/, accessed on 11/2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cullot, N., Parent, C., Spaccapietra, S., Vangenot, C.: Ontologies: a contribution to the DL/DB debate. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on the Semantic Web and Databases, 29th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, pp. 109–129 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Emmerich, W.: Distributed component technologies and their software engineering implications. In: ICSE ’02, Proceedngs of the 24th International Conference on Software Engineering, pp. 537–546. ACM Press (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hopkins J. (2000) Component primer. Commun. ACM 43(10): 27–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    IEEE L.T.S.C.: Draft standard for learning object metadata—IEEE 1484.12.1-2002. http://ltsc.ieee.org/doc/wg12/ LOM_1484_12_1_v1_Final_Draft.pdf, access on 10/2003 (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    ISO/IEC: ISO/IEC TR 2100-1—information technology—multimedia framework (MPEG-21), part 1: vision, technologies and strategy, 2nd edn. Technical Report (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Krueger C.W. (1992) Software reuse. ACM Comput. Surv. 24(2): 131–183CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martin, D., et al.: OWL-S: semantic markup for web services. www.daml.org/services/owl-s/1.1/overview/, accessed on 12/2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    McDonald, W.A., Hyde, J., Montgomery, A.: CMI guidelines for interoperability AICC. www.aicc.org/ docs/tech/cmi001v4.pdf, accessed on 11/2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Medeiros C.B., Perez-Alcazar J., Digiampietri L., Pastorello Jr G.Z., Santanchè A., Torres R.S., Madeira E., Bacarin E. (2005). WOODS and the web: annotating and reusing scientific workflows. SIGMOD Record. 34(3):18–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mitra, N.: SOAP version 1.2, part 0: primer—W3C recommendation 24 June. www.w3.org/TR/2003/REC-soap12-part0-20030624/, accessed on 12/2004 (2003)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mrch A.I., Stevens G., Won M., Klann M., Dittrich Y., Wulf V. (2004) Component-based technologies for end-user development. Commun. ACM 47(9): 59–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nanard, M., Nanard, J., King, P.: IUHM: a hypermedia-based model for integrating open services, data and metadata. In: HYPERTEXT ’03: Proceedings of the 14th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia, New York, pp. 128–137 (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Noy N.F., Sintek M., Decker S., Crubézy M., Fergerson R.W., Musen M.A. (2001) Creating semantic web contents with protégé-2000. IEEE Intell Syst 16(2): 60–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    OMG: Reusable asset specification—final adopted specification. http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?ptc/2004-06-06, accessed on 10/2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Potts, R.: Mozilla developer documentation—NG layout embedding APIs. www.mozilla.org/newlayout/doc/webwidget.html, accessed on 06/2005 (1998)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Roschelle J., DiGiano C., Koutlis M., Repenning A., Phillips J., Jackiw N., Suthers D. (1999) Developing educational software components. Computer 32(9): 50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Santanchè, A., Medeiros, C.B.: Geographic digital content components. In: Proceeings of VI Brazilian Symposium on GeoInformatics, pp. 281–290 (2004)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Santanchè, A., Medeiros, C.B.: Managing dynamic repositories for digital content components. In: Current Trends in Database Technology—EDBT 2004 Workshops, vol. LNCS 3268, pp. 66–77 (2004)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Santanchè, A., Medeiros, C.B.: Self describing components: searching for digital artifacts on the web. In: Proceedngs of XX Brazilian Symposium on Databases, pp. 10–24 (2005)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Santanchè, A., Teixeira, C.A.C.: Anima: promoting component integration in the web (in Portuguese). In: Proceedings of 7th Brasilian Symposium on Multimedia and Hypermedia Systems, pp. 261–268 (2001).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Smith, M.K., Welty, C., McGuinness, D.L.: OWL web ontology language guide—W3C recommendation 10 February 2004. www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-owl-guide-20040210/, accessed on 11/2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Smythe, C., Jackl, A.: IMS content packaging information model. Specification, IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. www.imsglobal.org/content/packaging/cpv1p1p4/imscp_ infov1p1p4.html, accessed on 11/2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    The Fedora Project team: Mellon Fedora Technical Specification. www.fedora.info/documents/master-spec-12.20.02.pdf, accessed on 12/2004 (2002)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    The Library of Congress: METS: an overview & tutorial. www.loc.gov/standards/mets/METSOverview.v2.html, accessed on 11/2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    UDDI Committee Specification: Uddi version 2.04 API specification. uddi.org/pubs/ProgrammersAPI-V2.04-Published-20020719.htm, accessed on 06/2005 (2002)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wang X., DeMartini T., Wragg B., Paramasivam M., Barlas C. (2005) The MPEG-21 rights expression language and rights data dictionary. IEEE Trans. Multimedia 7(3): 408–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • André Santanchè
    • 1
  • Claudia Bauzer Medeiros
    • 1
  • Gilberto Zonta PastorelloJr
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Computing, UNICAMPCampinasBrazil

Personalised recommendations