Multimedia Systems

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 34–44 | Cite as

An adaptive web page layout structure for small devices

Regular Paper


The limited display size of current small Internet devices is becoming a serious obstacle to information access. In this paper, we introduce a Document REpresentation for Scalable Structures (DRESS) to help information providers make composite documents, typically web pages, scalable in both logic and layout structure to support effective information acquisition in heterogeneous environments. Through this novel document representation structure based on binary slicing trees, the document can dynamically adapt its presentation according to display sizes by maximizing the information throughput to users. We discuss the details of this structure with its key attributes. An automatic approach for generating this structure for existing web pages is also presented. A branch-and-bound algorithm and a capacity ratio-based slicing method are proposed to select proper content representation and aesthetic document layouts respectively. A set of user study experiments have been carried out and the results show that compared with the thumbnail-based approach, the DRESS-based interface can reduce browsing time by 23.5%.


Web browsing Adaptive content delivery Slicing tree Mobile device Layout optimization 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Badros, G., Borning, A., Marriott, K., Stuckey, P.: Constraint cascading style sheets for the web. In: Proceedings of UIST'99, pp. 73–82. Asheville, USA (1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    BickMore, T.W., Schilit, B.N.: Digestor: device-independent access to the world wide web. In: Proceedings of WWW'97, pp. 655–663. Santa Clara, USA (1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Björk, S., Holmquist, L.E., Redström, J., Bretan, I., Danielsson, R., Karlgren, J., Franzén, K.: WEST: A Web Browser for Small Terminals. In: Proceedings of UIST'99, pp. 187–196. Asheville, USA (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Borning, A., Lin, R.K., Marriott, K.: Constraint-based document layout for the web. ACM Multimedia Syst. J. 8(3), 177–189 (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buyukkokten, O., Garcia-Molina, H., Paepcke, A., Winograd, T.: Power browser: efficient web browsing for PDAs. In: Proceedings of CHI'00, pp. 430–437. Hague, Netherlands (2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen, J.L., Zhou, B.Y., Shi, J., Zhang, H.J., Wu, Q.F.: Function-based Object Model towards Website Adaptation. In: Proceedings of WWW'01, pp. 587–596. Hong Kong, China (2001)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen, L.Q., Xie, X., Fan, X., Ma. W.Y., Zhang, H.J., Zhou, H.Q.: A visual attention model for adapting images on small displays. ACM Multimedia Syst. J. 9(4), 353–364 (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen, Y., Ma, W.Y., Zhang, H.J.: Detecting web page structure for adaptive viewing on small form factor devices. In: Proceedings of WWW'03. Budapest, Hungary (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cohoon, J.P., Paris, W.D.: Genetic placement. IEEE Trans. Comput. Aided Design (6), 956–964 (1987)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fuchs, M.: An evolutionary approach to support web page design. In: Proceedings of 2000 Congress on Evolutionary Computation, pp. 1312–1319. Piscataway, USA (2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    González, J., Rojas, I., Pomares, H., Salmerón, M., Prieto, A., Merelo, J.J.: Optimization of web newspaper layout in real time. Comput. Netw. 36(2–3), 311–321 (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    González, J., Rojas, I., Pomares, H., Salmerón, M., Merelo, J.J.: Web newspaper layout optimization using simulated annealing. IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybernet. – Part B: Cybernet. 32(5), 686–691 (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gu, X.D., Chen, J.L., Ma, W.Y., Chen, G.L.: Visual based content understanding towards web adaptation. In: Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web Based Systems, pp. 164–173. Malaga, Spain (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Han, R., Perret, V., Naghshineh, M.: WebSplitter: A unified XML framework for multi-device collaborative web browsing. In: Proceedings of CSCW'00, pp. 221–230. Philadelphia, USA (2000)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hori, M., Kondoh, G., Ono, K., Hirose, S., Singhal, S.: Annotation-based web content transcoding. Comput. Netw. 33(1–6), 197–211 (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Milic-Frayling, N., Sommerer, R.: SmartView: flexible viewing of web page contents. In: Proceedings of WWW'02. Honolulu, USA (2002)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
    Sarkar, M., Brown, M.H.: Graphical Fisheye views. Commun. ACM 37(12), 73–84 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Song, R., Liu, H., Wen, J.R., Ma, W.Y.: Learning block importance models for web pages. In: Proceedings of WWW'04. New York, USA (2004)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Suhit, G., Gail, K., David, N., Peter, G.: DOM-based content extraction of HTML documents. In: Proceedings of WWW'03. Budapest, Hungary (2003)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wobbrock, J.O., Forlizzi, J., Hudson, S.E., Myers, B.A.: WebThumb: interaction techniques for small-screen browsers. In: Proceedings of UIST'02, pp. 205–208. Paris, France (2002)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xie, X., Zeng, H.J., Ma, W.Y.: Enabling personalization services on the edge. In: Proceedings of ACM Multimedia 2002. Juan-les-pins, France (2002)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yang, Y.D., Zhang, H.J.: HTML page analysis based on visual cues. In: Proceedings of ICDAR'01. Seattle, USA (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xing Xie
    • 1
  • Chong Wang
    • 2
  • Li-Qun Chen
    • 3
  • Wei-Ying Ma
    • 1
  1. 1.Microsoft Research AsiaBeijingP.R. China
  2. 2.Department of AutomationTsinghua UniversityBeijingP.R. China
  3. 3.Department of AutomationUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiP.R. China

Personalised recommendations