Neural Computing and Applications

, Volume 31, Issue 12, pp 9321–9334 | Cite as

Usage of autoencoders and Siamese networks for online handwritten signature verification

  • Kian Ahrabian
  • Bagher BabaAliEmail author
Original Article


In this paper, we propose a novel writer-independent global feature extraction framework for the task of automatic signature verification which aims to make robust systems for automatically distinguishing negative and positive samples. Our method consists of an autoencoder for modeling the sample space into a fixed-length latent space and a siamese network for classifying the fixed-length samples obtained from the autoencoder based on the reference samples of a subject as being genuine or forged. During our experiments, usage of attention mechanism and applying downsampling significantly improved the accuracy of the proposed framework. We evaluated our proposed framework using SigWiComp2013 Japanese and GPDSsyntheticOnLineOffLineSignature datasets. On the SigWiComp2013 Japanese dataset, we achieved 8.65% equal error rate (EER) that means 1.2% relative improvement compared to the best-reported result. Furthermore, on the GPDSsyntheticOnLineOffLineSignature dataset, we achieved average EERs of 0.13%, 0.12%, 0.21% and 0.25%, respectively, for 150, 300, 1000 and 2000 test subjects which indicate improvement in relative EER on the best-reported result by 95.67%, 95.26%, 92.9% and 91.52%, respectively. Apart from the accuracy gain, because of the nature of our proposed framework which is based on neural networks and consequently is as simple as some consecutive matrix multiplications, it has less computational cost than conventional methods such as Dynamic Time Warping and could be used concurrently on devices such as Graphics Processing Unit and Tensor Processing Unit.


Online handwritten signature verification Siamese networks Autoencoders Sequence to sequence learning Attention mechanism 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran

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