Mutual authentication for vehicular network in complex and uncertain driving

  • 111 Accesses


With the rapid development of big data and cloud computing, vehicular is connected to the Internet in the complex and uncertain driving environment. The rapid growth of the types of services used by vehicles has made the problem of inefficient of traditional driving environment architecture more and more obvious. The vehicle has to register and remember a large number of usernames and passwords to each server. Authentication schemes for multi-server architectures have been proposed and applied to a wide range of areas, but there has been little research on the Internet of vehicles. The long-term evolution for vehicle (LTE-V) is a wireless network architecture and can be used for cooperative communication in vehicular network. Communications and authentication for LTE-V have the high request in complex and uncertain driving environment. To meet the needs of complex and uncertain driving environments, this paper proposes a novel mutual authentication and the key agreement scheme (LEANDER) under multi-server architecture. In this scheme, elliptic curve is used to reduce the computational complexity, and a more concise authentication method is constructed. Random anonymity supports multi-server for two-way authentication and key agreement, so as to effectively protect the privacy of the vehicle. Moreover, it can be use BAN logic to prove and analyze the effectiveness of this scheme. The performance analysis results show that the proposed mutual authentication scheme is effective and more secure than other state-of-the-art methods.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. 1.

    Li W, Ma X, Wu J et al (2017) Analytical model and performance evaluation of long-term evolution for vehicle safety services. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 66(3):1926–1939

  2. 2.

    Cao J, Ma M, Li H et al (2014) A survey on security aspects for LTE and LTE-A networks. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 16(1):283–302

  3. 3.

    Sun W, Liu J, Zhang H (2017) When smart wearables meet intelligent vehicles: challenges and future directions. IEEE Wirel Commun 24(3):58–65

  4. 4.

    Xu C, Huang X, Ma M et al (2017) A privacy-preserving and cross-domain group authentication scheme for vehicular in LTE-A networks. J Commun 12(11):604–610

  5. 5.

    Cheng JJ, Cheng JL, Zhou MC et al (2015) Routing in internet of vehicles: a review. IEEE Trans Intell Transp Syst 16(5):2339–2352

  6. 6.

    Özçevik ME, Canberk B, Duong TQ (2017) End to end delay modeling of heterogeneous traffic flows in software defined 5G networks. Ad Hoc Netw 60:26–39

  7. 7.

    Sindhuja P, Kuwahara Y, Kumaki K et al (2016) A design of vehicular GPS and LTE antenna considering vehicular body effects. IEICE Trans Commun 99(4):894–904

  8. 8.

    Xu C, Huang X, Ma M et al (2018) A secure and efficient message authentication scheme for vehicular networks based on LTE-V. KSII Trans Internet Inf Syst 12(6):2841–2860

  9. 9.

    Liu J, Kato N, Ma J et al (2015) Device-to-device communication in LTE-advanced networks: a survey. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 17(4):1923–1940

  10. 10.

    Islam SH (2014) A provably secure ID-based mutual authentication and key agreement scheme for mobile multi-server environment without ESL attack. Wirel Pers Commun 79(3):1975–1991

  11. 11.

    Li X, Ma J, Wang W et al (2013) A novel smart card and dynamic ID based remote user authentication scheme for multi-server environments. Math Comput Model 58(1–2):85–95

  12. 12.

    Li CT, Lee CC, Weng CY et al (2015) A secure dynamic identity based authentication protocol with smart cards for multi-server architecture. J Inf Sci Eng 31(6):1975–1992

  13. 13.

    Kim Y, Lim H, Kim K et al (2017) A SDN-based distributed mobility management in LTE/EPC network. J Supercomput 73(7):2919–2933

  14. 14.

    Ucar S, Ergen SC, Ozkasap O (2016) Multihop-cluster-based IEEE 802.11 p and LTE hybrid architecture for VANET safety message dissemination. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 65(4):2621–2636

  15. 15.

    Li J, Wen M, Zhang T (2016) Group-based authentication and key agreement with dynamic policy updating for MTC in LTE-A networks. IEEE Internet Things J 3(3):408–417

  16. 16.

    Choi D, Choi HK, Lee SY (2015) A group-based security protocol for machine-type communications in LTE-advanced. Wirel Netw 21(2):405–419

  17. 17.

    Cao J, Ma M, Li H (2015) GBAAM: group-based access authentication for MTC in LTE networks. Secur Commun Netw 8(17):3282–3299

  18. 18.

    Qiu Y, Ma M, Wang X (2017) A proxy signature-based handover authentication scheme for LTE wireless networks. J Netw Comput Appl 83:63–71

  19. 19.

    He D, Wang D (2015) Robust biometrics-based authentication scheme for multiserver environment. IEEE Syst J 9(3):816–823

  20. 20.

    Lai C, Lu R, Li H et al (2016) Secure machine-type communications in LTE networks. Wirel Commun Mob Comput 16(12):1495–1509

  21. 21.

    Hsieh WB, Leu JS (2014) An anonymous mobile user authentication protocol using self-certified public keys based on multi-server architectures. J Supercomput 70(1):133–148

  22. 22.

    Amin R, Biswas GP (2015) Design and analysis of bilinear pairing based mutual authentication and key agreement protocol usable in multi-server environment. Wirel Pers Commun 84(1):439–462

  23. 23.

    He D, Zeadally S, Kumar N et al (2016) Efficient and anonymous mobile user authentication protocol using self-certified public key cryptography for multi-server architectures. IEEE Trans Inf Forensics Secur 11(9):2052–2064

  24. 24.

    Chen S, Hu J, Shi Y et al (2016) LTE-V: a TD-LTE-based V2X solution for future vehicular network. IEEE Int Things J 3(6):997–1005

  25. 25.

    Fu A, Song J, Li S et al (2016) A privacy-preserving group authentication protocol for machine-type communication in LTE/LTE-A networks. Secur Commun Netw 9(13):2002–2014

  26. 26.

    Shao C, Leng S, Zhang Y et al (2015) Performance analysis of connectivity probability and connectivity-aware MAC protocol design for platoon-based VANETs. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 64(12):5596–5609

  27. 27.

    Cao J, Ma M, Li H et al (2018) EGHR: efficient group-based handover authentication protocols for mMTC in 5G wireless networks. J Netw Comput Appl 102:1–16

  28. 28.

    Wu C, Yoshinaga T, Ji Y et al (2017) A reinforcement learning-based data storage scheme for vehicular ad hoc networks. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 66(7):6336–6348

  29. 29.

    Liyanage KSK, Ma M, Chong PHJ (2018) Controller placement optimization in hierarchical distributed software defined vehicular networks. Comput Netw 135:226–239

  30. 30.

    Zheng K, Zheng Q, Chatzimisios P et al (2015) Heterogeneous vehicular networking: a survey on architecture, challenges, and solutions. IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 17(4):2377–2396

  31. 31.

    Tan H, Ma M, Labiod H et al (2016) A secure and authenticated key management protocol (SA-KMP) for vehicular networks. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 65(12):9570–9584

  32. 32.

    Fu A, Qin N, Wang Y et al (2017) Nframe: a privacy-preserving with non-frameability handover authentication protocol based on (t, n) secret sharing for LTE/LTE-A networks. Wirel Netw 23(7):2165–2176

  33. 33.

    Minelli M, Ma M, Coupechoux M et al (2016) Scheduling impact on the performance of relay-enhanced LTE-A networks. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 65(4):2496–2508

  34. 34.

    Yang T, Lai C, Lu R et al (2015) EAPSG: efficient authentication protocol for secure group communications in maritime wideband communication networks. Peer-to-Peer Netw Appl 8(2):216–228

  35. 35.

    Huang X, Xu C, Wang P et al (2018) LNSC: a security model for electric vehicle and charging pile management based on blockchain ecosystem. IEEE Access 6:13565–13574

Download references


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61871039), the Supporting Plan for Cultivating High Level Teachers in Colleges and Universities in Beijing (Grant No. IDHT20170511), the Talents Cultivation and Cooperation Oriented to Intelligent Vehicle Industrialization (Grant No. UK-CIAPP\324), Newton Fund Project supported by Royal Academy of Engineering of UK, the Joint Funds of National Natural Science Foundation of China and Xinjiang (Grant No. U1603261), and the National Key Technology R&D Program (Grant No. 2015BAH55F03).

Author information

Correspondence to Hongzhe Liu.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

We declare that we do not have any commercial or associative interest that represents a conflict of interest in connection with the work submitted.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Xu, C., Liu, H., Zhang, Y. et al. Mutual authentication for vehicular network in complex and uncertain driving. Neural Comput & Applic 32, 61–72 (2020).

Download citation


  • Mutual authentication
  • LTE-V
  • Vehicular network
  • Cloud service
  • Privacy preserving