Neural Computing and Applications

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 1117–1126 | Cite as

LU triangularization extreme learning machine in EEG cognitive task classification

  • Yakup KutluEmail author
  • Apdullah Yayık
  • Esen Yildirim
  • Serdar Yildirim
Original Article


Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used as a promising tool for investigation of brain activity during cognitive processes. The aim of this study is to reveal whether EEG signals can be used for classifying cognitive processes: arithmetic tasks and text reading. A recently introduced EEG database, which is constructed from 18 healthy subjects during a slide show including 60 slides of simple arithmetic tasks and easily readable texts, is used for this purpose. Multi-order difference plot-based time-domain attributes, number of values in specified regions after scattering the sequential difference values with several degrees, are extracted. For classification, improved extreme learning machine (ELM) scheme, namely luELM, by the use of lower–upper triangularization method instead of singular value decomposition which has disadvantages when used with huge data is proposed. As a result, higher accuracy results are achieved with reduced training time for proposed luELM classifier than traditional ELM classifier for both subject-dependent and subject-independent analysis.


Cognitive processes Lower–upper triangularization Extreme learning machine MoDP method Optimized nodes 



The authors are very grateful to Mr. Server Göksel Eraldemir for his efforts to construct the EEG-MaTeP database.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Natural Computing Applications Forum 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yakup Kutlu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Apdullah Yayık
    • 2
  • Esen Yildirim
    • 3
  • Serdar Yildirim
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Computer Engineeringİskenderun Technical UniversityHatayTurkey
  2. 2.Alparslan Defence SciencesNational Defense UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringAdana Science and Technology UniversityAdanaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Computer EngineeringAdana Science and Technology UniversityAdanaTurkey

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