Acute effect of orange chromatic environment on perceived health status, pain, and vital signs during chemotherapy treatment
- 54 Downloads
The study is aimed at assessing the acute effect of orange color and natural light exposure on cancer patients during chemotherapy sessions. Warmer environments and rooms receiving more sunlight hours were expected to impact vital signs, quality of life, and pain symptoms.
We used a single-group repeated-measures clinical trial design. For the purpose of the study, chemotherapy rooms were modified based on two experimental factors: color (white vs. orange) and sunlight orientation (south vs. north). On four consecutive sessions, cancer patients were randomly assigned to one of the following conditions: orange-north, orange-south, white-north, and white-south. They received chemotherapy per standard of care. The following outcomes were assessed: blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, and European Quality of Life Five-Dimension Five-Level Scale Questionnaire (EUROQOL-5D-5L) including the visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS).
Statistically significant beneficial effect of orange color room in self-rated health was found (p = 0.036, d = 0.28). Small differences in other parameters (body temperature, d = 0.34; diastolic blood pressure, d = 0.37; systolic blood pressure, d = 0.28) did not reach statistical significance. No differences were found based on room orientation.
Compared with a cool-color design, a warm-color living environment could have a positive effect on patients’ well-being during chemotherapy sessions. Although the clinical effect size on perceived health status and vital signs could be considered small, the cost-effectiveness analysis would support the use of the proposed configurations. More research is still needed.
KeywordsCancer Chemotherapy Color Healing environment Self-rated health
The authors would like to thank IOB Institute of Oncology Madrid (Spain) and Dr. Javier Cortés and especially their nurses for their collaboration during the data collection. We would also like to thank Julio Ruben Padilla, who also helped to collect data for this study. Also, we would like to thank Dr. Ana Marcella Rivas for the critical review of the manuscript and Kelsey Jendrzey from the Clinical Research Institute of TTUHSC for the grammar review and editing of the manuscript.
Conceptualization, methodology: MPR, PGV, ELZ
Data collection: PGV
Data analysis and interpretation: ELZ
Original draft preparation: PGV, ELZ, MPR
Review and editing: ELZ, MPR, JR
Project administration: MPR
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures performed in the study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee (Jimenez-Diaz Foundation, PIC101-18_HRJR) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- 1.World Health Organization (2014) World cancer report 2014. LyonGoogle Scholar
- 2.Jin Shin K, Jin Lee Y, Ryoul Yang Y et al (2016) Molecular mechanisms underlying psychological stress and cancer. Curr Farm Des 22:2389–2402Google Scholar
- 5.Cohen S, Kessler RC, Underwood LG (1997) Measuring stress: a guide for health and social scientists. Strategies for measuring stress in studies of psychiatric and physical disorders. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- 6.Goldwater DS, Dharmarajan K, McEwen BS, Krumholz HM (2018) Is posthospital syndrome a result of hospitalization-induced allostatic overload? J Hosp Med 13. https://doi.org/10.12788/jhm.2986
- 10.Hoogland AI, Lechner SC, Gonzalez BD, Small BJ, Tyson DM, Asvat Y, Barata A, Gomez MF, Rodriguez Y, Jim HSL, Antoni MH, Jacobsen PB, Meade CD (2018) Efficacy of a Spanish-language self-administered stress management training intervention for Latinas undergoing chemotherapy. Psychooncology 27:1305–1311. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.4673 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Rodriguez Marín MJ, Zurriaga Llorens R (1997) Estrés, enfermedad y hospitalización. Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Granada, SpainGoogle Scholar
- 16.Graham M, Wright R, Beck WC, Flynn JE, Sisson TRC, Castelluccio SA (1976) Color in the health care environment, Brian C. P. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- 17.Ulrich RS (2001) Effects of healthcare environmental design on medical outcomes. In: Second International Conference on Design and HealthGoogle Scholar
- 19.Health M, Brent Tofle R, Schwarz B, et al (2004) Color in healthcare environments-a research report principal researchersGoogle Scholar
- 20.Landgrebe M, Nyuyki-Dufe K, Steffens T, Eichhammer P (2008) Effects of colour exposure on auditory and somatosensory perception – hints for cross-modal plasticityGoogle Scholar
- 23.Sroykham W, Wongsathikun J, Wongsawat Y (2014) The effects of perceiving color in living environment on QEEG, oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and emotion regulation in humans. In: 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE, Chicago, IL, USA, pp 6226–6229Google Scholar
- 27.Heller E (2004) Psicología del color: cómo actúan los colores sobre los sentimientos y la razón. Editorial Gustavo GiliGoogle Scholar
- 28.Birren F (2016) Color psychology and color therapy; a factual study of the influence of color on human life. Pickle Partners Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 31.Gálvez R, Pardo A, Cerón JM, Villasante F, Aranguren JL, Saldaña MT, Navarro A, Ruiz MA, Díaz S, Rejas J (2008) Adaptación al castellano y validación psicométrica del cuestionario ID-Pain© para la detección de dolor neuropático. Med Clin (Barc) 131:572–578. https://doi.org/10.1157/13128018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Badia X, Roset M, Montserrat S et al (1999) The Spanish version of EuroQol: a description and its applications. European Quality of Life scale. Med Clin (Barc) 112(Suppl):79–85Google Scholar
- 36.Mahnke FH (1996) Color, environment, and human response : an interdisciplinary understanding of color and its use as a beneficial element in the design of the architectural environment. WileyGoogle Scholar
- 38.Elliot AJ, Maier MA (2014) Color psychology: effects of perceiving color on psychological functioning in humans. Annu Rev Psychol 65:95–120. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 39.Cheskin L (1947) Colors: what they can do for you? NY Liveright PublGoogle Scholar
- 40.Harris PB, McBride G, Ross C, Curtis L (2002) A place to heal: environmental sources of satisfaction among hospital patients1. J Appl Soc Psychol 32:1276–1299. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2002.tb01436.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar