Efficacy and safety of Viscum album extract (Helixor-M) to treat malignant pleural effusion in patients with lung cancer
Manifestations of malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) are alleviated by local therapies as well as by systemic treatment. After 2009, when commercial use of talc was discontinued in Korea, we have used Helixor-M, which is derived from the European mistletoe (Viscum album), as an alternative sclerosing agent for pleurodesis. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Helixor-M for controlling MPE.
Between 2009 and 2015, we consecutively enrolled 52 patients with lung cancer, who underwent pleurodesis to treat MPE and were analyzed retrospectively. On day 1, 100 mg of Helixor-M was instilled via pleural catheter. If the procedure was not effective, it was repeated every other day up to five times, and the dose increased each time by 100 mg. The primary study outcome was reappearance of pleural effusion at 1 month after the last pleurodesis procedure.
The median age of patient was 63 years, and 77% of the 52 patients were male. About 85% of pleural effusions were found to be malignant by cytogenetic analysis. Forty-two (81%) patients were evaluable for recurrence of MPE. The 1-month recurrence rate was 48% (20/42). Among the 20 patients who developed recurrent MPE, 6 required therapeutic thoracentesis. Thirteen (25%) patients experienced procedure-related pain requiring medication. Eight (15%) had fever > 38 °C.
Our results suggest that a pleurodesis with Helixor-M was an effective and tolerable procedure for controlling MPE in lung cancer patients.
KeywordsMalignant pleural effusion Pleurodesis Viscum album
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Institutional Review Board (No. KBSMC 2016–07-045) and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
- 11.Kim JJ, Lee SK, Choi HH (2004) Viscum album therapy in malignant pleural effusion. Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 37:978–982Google Scholar
- 15.Shaw P, Agarwal R (2004) Pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002916.pub2
- 16.Janssen JP, Collier G, Astoul P, Tassi GF, Noppen M, Rodriguez-Panadero F, Loddenkemper R, Herth FJ, Gasparini S, Marquette CH, Becke B, Froudarakis ME, Driesen P, Bolliger CT, Tschopp JM (2007) Safety of pleurodesis with talc poudrage in malignant pleural effusion: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 369:1535–1539CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar