Supportive Care in Cancer

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 2993–2996 | Cite as

The role of the built environment in a randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity among men with prostate cancer: the PROMOTE trial

  • Erin L. McGowanEmail author
  • Daniel Fuller
  • Nicoleta Cutumisu
  • Scott North
  • Kerry S. Courneya



The purpose of the study was to examine the association between the built environment and physical activity (PA) in prostate cancer survivors (PCS), as well as whether built environment factors (walkability, count of sports complexes) were effect modifiers of a PA intervention.


Our study included 165 PCS residing in Edmonton, Alberta, from the PROMOTE trial. The PROMOTE trial was a randomized controlled trial of a behaviour change intervention to increase PA and quality of life in PCS. In the PROMOTE trial, 423 PCS were randomly assigned to a standard physical activity recommendation, self-administered implementation intention, or telephone-assisted implementation intention group. PA and quality of life outcomes were assessed at baseline, 1, and 3 months. To explore the role of the built environment, this study examined walkability and count of sport complexes.


Linear regression analyses revealed that the self-administered intervention group had an increase in self-reported PA minutes/week (β = 133.4, 95% CI = −18.9 to 285.6); however, none of the built environment variables were found to be significantly associated with PA. The logistic regression showed that the self-administered intervention group had a significantly greater likelihood of meeting the PA guidelines (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.9 to 4.9), though no built environment variables were associated with PA levels.


Our findings suggest that the built environment was not associated with PA and was not an effect modifier in a PA behaviour change intervention for PCS. Further research is needed before clear conclusions can be generated ( number NCT01410656).


Prostate cancer Physical activity Built environment Intervention 



This study was funded by a University of Alberta Killam Research Fund Cornerstone Grant. Erin McGowan was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute (grant no. 700019). Kerry S. Courneya and Daniel Fuller are supported by the Canada Research Chairs Program. We would like to thank Carol Russell and Lorraine Cormier from the Alberta Cancer Registry for their assistance in conducting this study ( number NCT01410656).

Compliance with ethical standards

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erin L. McGowan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Daniel Fuller
    • 1
  • Nicoleta Cutumisu
    • 2
  • Scott North
    • 3
  • Kerry S. Courneya
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Human Kinetics and RecreationMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada
  2. 2.Centre INRS-Institut Armand-FrappierLavalCanada
  3. 3.Medical Oncology, Department of OncologyUniversity of Alberta, Cross Cancer InstituteEdmontonCanada
  4. 4.Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, 1-113 University Hall, Van Vliet ComplexUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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