Importance of eliminating potential dental focal infection before the first cycle of chemotherapy in patients with hematologic malignancy
- First Online:
- 526 Downloads
Letter to the Editor,
The oral cavity is a potential infection site in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy . These patients are more susceptible to systemic infection, particularly those who need chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies . Many dentists find it difficult to select an approach for dental focal infection in these patients [1, 2]. Although there is some literature assessing oral health in patients undergoing chemotherapy or pre-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation , these patients had already experienced adverse effects of chemotherapy, making it difficult to interpret the effect of dental treatment. Tooth extraction is a common surgical procedure performed to eliminate dental focal infection, and it carries a risk of perioperative surgical site infection (SSI) . Although the frequency of tooth extraction-associated SSI is <5% in healthy individuals , it may be increased in patients with hematologic malignancy.
We retrospectively reviewed the records of 160 patients with hematologic malignancy who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Center Hospital, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, over a 2-year period to clarify the incidence of oral adverse events if dental problems are treated before the first chemotherapy cycle. Seventy-five patients were treated before the first cycle. Dental treatments were performed, and oral health status was assessed after chemotherapy. The observation period was the number of days from the start of the first chemotherapy cycle to just before the start of the second cycle. In cases where the cycle was unclear (e.g., when a single agent was administered repeatedly), the observation period was 30 days from chemotherapy initiation (i.e., the period deemed by hospital management to constitute adequate follow-up).
Nine (12.0%) patients experienced oral adverse events after chemotherapy. No significant difference was found between the groups with and without tooth extraction (P = 0.28). The most frequently observed symptom was periodontitis aggravation (n = 3, 33.0%). Although all three patients were deemed to require extraction at the first stomatognathic screening, a decision not to proceed was made in two cases owing to a tight chemotherapy schedule. However, inflammation steadily worsened thereafter. Remarkably, only two of 28 (7.1%) tooth extraction cases had a poor outcome, regardless of the operative stress (surgical or simple extraction). Oral antibiotics (penicillin or cephem) were administered starting just after surgery in all extraction cases and continued at least for 3 days. If oral administration was impossible, the intravenous route was used. The median (min-max) white blood cell and absolute neutrophil counts at extraction were 5685/μL (720–123,300 × 103/μL) and 3889/μL (36–12,330/μL), respectively. Sixty-six (88.0%) patients did not experience oral adverse events and were able to continue chemotherapy without delay.
Oral mucositis is a well-known adverse event in patients undergoing chemotherapy , and was observed frequently in our patients. However, the frequency was lower compared with a previous report . Although further investigation is necessary to clarify the effectiveness, intraoral icing during chemotherapy was performed for all patients, and this may protect against stomatitis.
Stomatognathic region surgery is normally associated with postoperative complications such as pain, swelling, and trismus. These are detrimental to oral hygiene and change the oral bacterial flora, which may aggravate periodontitis and stomatitis [6, 7]. Although these symptoms are not directly related to the surgical procedure, we would classify them as adverse events because they almost certainly affect quality of life. Periodontitis or stomatitis may lead to a delay or interruption of chemotherapy due to cellulitis, as well as cause life-threatening sepsis in immunosuppressed patients . Therefore, we recommend that potential sources of infection in the oral cavity be identified and eliminated before the first chemotherapy cycle when possible. In addition, we recommend regularly investigating oral health status after chemotherapy initiation and performing periodontal treatment and professional oral health care as necessary.
Relative frequencies of oral adverse events compared with other countries in patients with hematologic malignancy
Total no. of pt.
No. of before chemotherapy pt.
No. of tooth extraction pt.
Total no. of pt. with oral adverse event after chemotherapy
Total no. of pt. with systemic infection of oral origin
Delay of chemotherapy
SSI associated with tooth extraction
In summary, we did not find a significant relationship between tooth extraction before the first chemotherapy cycle and oral adverse events thereafter. Dental focal infection may adversely affect patients with hematologic malignancy, so dental infections should ideally be identified and eliminated before initiating chemotherapy. Specialists should pay close attention to oral health in patients with hematologic malignancy so their treatment can be appropriately sequenced.
This work was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Research from the National Center for Global Health and Medicine (28-1105). We would like to thank Editage (www.editage.jp) for English language editing.
YS, YN, KI, IS, SH, HY, YK, and YM conceived and designed the study; YS, YN, KI, and YK analyzed the data; YS and KI wrote the paper; all authors read and approved the final version submitted.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All investigations were performed according to protocols that were reviewed and approved by the ethical committee of NCGM (NCGM-G-00179-00). We also conducted the study in accordance with the Helsinki declaration. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
- 2.Akashi M, Shibuya Y, Kusumoto J et al (2013) Myelosuppression grading of chemotherapies for hematologic malignancies to facilitate communication between medical and dental staff: lessons from two cases experienced odontogenic septicemia. BMC Oral Health 13:41. doi:10.1186/1472-6831-13-41 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 7.Kojima A, Ekuni D, Mizutani S et al (2013) Relationships between self-rated oral health, subjective symptoms, oral health behavior and clinical conditions in Japanese university students: a cross-sectional survey at Okayama University. BMC Oral Health 13:62. doi:10.1186/1472-6831-13-62 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.