Development of a conceptual model to illustrate the impact of multiple myeloma and its treatment on health-related quality of life
Little qualitative research exploring the impact of multiple myeloma (MM) and its treatment on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients has been published. This study aimed to explore the burden of MM symptoms and treatment and the impact of these on HRQL. A model was developed to illustrate key concepts and their interrelationships.
Patients with MM were recruited to this cross-sectional, qualitative study through a patient panel and at two clinical sites in the USA. An interview discussion guide was developed using a review of published literature and interviews with experienced MM clinicians. In-depth, semistructured telephone interviews with MM patients were conducted to explore their experiences of the disease and its treatment. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach.
Twenty MM patients at various stages of treatment participated in open-ended, semistructured interviews. Patients reported both current and previous MM symptoms; most had experienced fatigue and pain. Other commonly reported symptoms were fractures, anemia, neuropathy, aches, and infections. MM treatment was found to have a negative impact on patients’ HRQL; treatment-related adverse events included fatigue, neuropathy, insomnia, and gastrointestinal symptoms. MM treatment placed a substantial psychological and physical burden on patients, disrupting social activities, decreasing independence, and impacting on relationships. A model was developed to illustrate the relationship between these concepts.
The conceptual model developed in this study illustrates the many aspects of MM and its treatment and how they can have a negative impact on patients’ HRQL.
KeywordsMultiple myeloma Health-related quality of life Conceptual model
The authors would like to acknowledge the editorial assistance of Jane Saunders and Helen Johns of FireKite, part of the KnowledgePoint360 Group, an Ashfield Company, during the development of this publication, which was funded by Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The authors would also like to thank Katie Breheny, Kendra Debusk, and Rene Dickerhoof from Icon Plc for their assistance with data collection and analysis.
KG, PS, HML, and DB designed and/or performed the research reported in this analysis; KG collected data; KG, PS, and DB analyzed the data; all authors interpreted the data; KG and PS wrote the manuscript. All authors reviewed and approved the manuscript.
Conflict of interest
RB: Research support from Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Celgene, Sanofi, and BMS
RB: Has full control of all primary data and agrees to allow the journal to review these data if requested
HML: Employment: Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc.
A-MH: Employment: Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited
RDH: Research funding from Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Celgene, Novartis, and Onyx
KC: Has consulted for Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Celgene
KG: Employment: Icon plc, which received research funding from Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited
PS: Employment: MAPI consultancy, which received research funding from Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited
JL: Research funding from Novartis, Onyx, Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, and Celgene
DB: Employment: Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited
PR: Advisory committee member for Celgene, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, and Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, and has received research funding from Celgene and Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited
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