Advertisement

Supportive Care in Cancer

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 1417–1428 | Cite as

Effect of chemotherapy on quality of life in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

  • Eileen Mannion
  • J. J. Gilmartin
  • Paul Donnellan
  • Maccon Keane
  • Dympna Waldron
Review Article

Abstract

Purpose

This study was conducted to evaluate the extent to which quality of life (QoL) assessment has been incorporated into clinical trials of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving palliative chemotherapy.

Patients and methods

Phase III trials for patients with NSCLC treated with palliative chemotherapy were identified by a literature search of PubMed. All abstracts and relevant articles from August 1986 to October 2011 were reviewed. The primary focus was on (a) whether these articles had incorporated QoL as an endpoint, (c) what instruments were used to measure QoL and (c) impact of chemotherapy on QoL.

Results

There were 3,780 items indexed under ‘quality of life and lung cancer’. One hundred three studies were identified which measured QoL using validated QoL instruments. Fifty-five of these trials assessed the effects of palliative chemotherapy on QoL in patients with advanced NSCLC. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire was the most widely used questionnaire; other commonly used measurement scales used were the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung and the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale. The majority of studies showed that chemotherapy had a positive impact on QoL and disease-specific symptoms.

Conclusion

It is now widely accepted that QoL should be considered as a primary endpoint of treatment in patients with advanced lung cancer both in clinical practice and clinical trials to further define meaningful response. As the traditional outcome measures of survival and tumour response are poor in this population, QoL assessment may offer a more comprehensive approach to evaluating the relative risks and benefits associated with treatments.

Keywords

Palliative chemotherapy Quality of life Non-small cell lung cancer 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare in relation to sponsorship or authorship of this research. They have control of the content of this review and the journal can review the data if requested.

References

  1. 1.
    Aaronson NK (1992) Assessing the quality of life of patients in cancer clinical trials. Common problems and common sense solutions. Eur J Cancer 28A:1304–1307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abratt RP, Bezwoda WR, Goedhals L, Hacking DJ (1997) Weekly gemcitabine with monthly cisplatin: effective chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 15:744–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akerly W, Glantz M, Choy H et al (1998) Phase II trial of weekly paclitaxel in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 16:153–158Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson H, Hopwood P, Stephens RJ et al (2000) Gemcitabine plus best supportive care (BSC) vs BSC in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer—a randomized trial with quality of life as the primary outcome. UK NSCLC Gemcitabine Group. Br J Cancer 83:447–453PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baka S, Ashcroft L, Anderson M et al (2005) Randomized phase III study of two gemcitabine schedules for patients with impaired performance status (Karnofsky performance status <70) and advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 23:2136–2144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Belani CP, Pereira JR, von Pawel J et al (2006) Effect of chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer on patients’ quality of life. A randomized controlled trial. Lung Cancer 53:231–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bergman B, Aaronson NK, Ahmedazi S et al (1994) The EORTC QLQ-LC13: a modular supplement to the EORTC core quality of life questionnaire (QLQ-C30) for use in lung cancer clinical trials. Eur J Cancer 30A:635–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bergner M, Bobbitt RA, Carter WB et al (1981) The Sickness Impact Profile: development and final revision of a health status measure. Med Care 19:787–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bonomi P, KyungMann K, Fairclough D et al (2000) Comparison of survival and quality of life in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with two dose levels of paclitaxel combined with cisplatin versus etoposide with cisplatin: results of an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial. J Clin Oncol 18:623–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Borgstrom P, Gold DP, Hillian KJ et al (1999) Importance of VEGF for breast cancer angiogenesis in vivo: implications from intravital microscopy of combination treatments with an anti-VEG neutralizing monoclonal antibody and doxorubicin. Anticancer Res 19:4203–4214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bowling A (1991) A Review of Quality of Life Measurement Scales. Meas Health, Open University Press, Milton KeynesGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bowling A (1995) A Review of Disease-Specific Quality of Life Measurement Scales. Meas Health, Open University Press, Milton Keynes Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Breathnach OS, Freidlin B, Conley B et al (2001) Twenty-two years of phase III trials for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: sobering results. J Clin Oncol 19:1734–1742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brown J, Thorpe H, Napp V et al (2005) Assessment of quality of life in the supportive care setting of The Big Lung Trial in non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 23:7417–7427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Buccheri GF, Ferrigno D, Curcia A et al (1989) Continuation of chemotherapy versus supportive care alone in patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer and stable disease after two or three cycles of MACC. Cancer 63:428–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bunn PA Jr, Kelly K (1998) New chemotherapeutic agents prolong survival and improve quality of life in non-small cell lung cancer: a review. Clin Cancer Res 5:1087–1100Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Calman KC (1984) Quality of life in cancer patients: an hypothesis. J Med Ethics 10:124–127PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cardenal F, Lopez-Cabrerizo MP, Anton A et al (1999) Randomized phase III study of gemcitabine–cisplatin versus etoposide–cisplatin in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non small cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 17:12–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carney DN, Hansen HH (2000) Non-small-cell lung cancer—stalemate or progress. N Engl J Med 343:1261–1262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cella DF, Bonomi AE, Lloyd SR et al (1995) Reliability and validity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (FACT-L) quality of life instrument. Lung Cancer 12:199–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cella D, Herbst RS, Lynch TJ et al (2005) Clinically meaningful improvement in symptoms and quality of life for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer receiving gefitinib in a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 23:2946–2954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Crino L, Scagliotti GV, Ricci S et al (1999) Gemcitabine and cisplatin versus mitomycin, ifosfamide and cisplatin in advanced non small cell lung cancer: a randomised phase III study of the Italian Lung Cancer Project. J Clin Oncol 17:3522–3530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cullen MH, Billingham LJ, Woodroffe CM et al (1999) Mitomycin, ifosfamide, and cisplatin in unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer: effects on survival and quality of life. J Clin Oncol 17(10):3188–3194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dancey J, Shepherd FA, Gralla RJ et al (2004) Quality of life assessment of second line docetaxel versus best supportive care in patients with non small cell lung cancer previously treated with platinum based chemotherapy: results of a prospective, randomised phase III trial. Lung Cancer 43:183–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    de Haes JC, van Knippenburg FC, Neijit JP (1990) Measuring psychological and physical distress in cancer patients: structure and application of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist. Br J Cancer 62:1034–1038PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Emmanuel LL, Barry MJ, Stoeckle JD et al (1991) Advance directives for medical care: a case for greater use. N Engl J Med 324:889–895Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fairclough DL (1997) Summary measures and statistics for comparison of quality of life in a clinical trial of cancer therapy. Stat Med 16:1197–1209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fayers PM, Jones DR (1983) Measuring and analysing quality of life in cancer clinical trials: a review. Stat Med 2:429–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ferrara N, Gerber HP, LeCouter J (2003) The biology of VEGF and its receptors. Nat Med 9:669–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fidias PM, Dakhil SR, Lyss AP et al (2009) Phase III study of immediate compared with delayed docetaxel after front-line therapy with gemcitabine plus carboplatin in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 27:591–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Frasci G, Lorusso V, Panza N et al (2000) Gemcitabine plus vinorelbine versus vinorelbine alone in elderly patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 18:2529–2536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fujino S, Enokibori T, Tezuka N et al (1996) A comparison of epidermal growth factor receptor levels and other prognostic parameters in non-small-cell lung cancer. Eur J Cancer 32A:2070–2074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fukuoka M, Yano S, Giaccone G et al (2003) Multi-institutional randomized phase II trial of gefitinib for previously treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 21:2237–2246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gatzemeier U, von Pawel J, Gottfried M et al (2000) Phase III comparative study of high-dose cisplatin versus a combination of paclitaxel and cisplatin in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 18:3390–3399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gebbia V, Lorusso V, Galetta D et al (2010) First line cisplatin with docetaxel or vinorelbine in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a quality of life directed phase II randomized trial of Gruppo Oncologico Italia Meridionale. Lung Cancer 69:218–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Georgoulias V, Papadakis E, Alexopoulos A et al (2001) Platinum-based and non-platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a randomized multicentre trial. Lancet 357:1478–1484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Georgoulias V, Ardavanis A, Tsiafaki X et al (2005) Vinorelbine plus cisplatin versus docetaxel plus gemcitabine in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase III randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 23:2937–2945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Giaccone G, Splinter TA, Debruyne C et al (1998) Randomized study of paclitaxel-cisplatin versus cisplatin-teniposide in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lung Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol 16:2133–2141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gill TM, Feinstein AR (1994) A critical appraisal of the quality of quality of life measurements. JAMA 272:619–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Greenlee RT, Hill-Harmon MB, Murray T, Thun T (2001) Cancer statistics, 2001. CA Cancer J Clin 51:15–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gridelli C, Gallo C, Shepherd FA et al (2003) Gemcitabine plus vinorelbine compared with cisplatin plus vinorelbine or cisplatin plus gemcitabine for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 21:3025–3034PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gridelli C, Gallo C, Di Maio M et al (2004) A randomised clinical trial of two docetaxel regimens (weekly versus 3 week) in the second-line treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer: the DISTAL 01 study. Br J Cancer 91:1996–2004PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gridelli C, Kaukel E, Gregorc V et al (2007) Single-agent pemetrexed or sequential pemetrexed/gemcitabine as front-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer in elderly patients or patients ineligible for platinum-based chemotherapy: a multicenter, randomized, phase II trial. J Thorac Oncol 2:221–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Grilli R, Oxman AD, Julian JA (1993) Chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: how much benefit is enough? J Clin Oncol 11(10):1866–1872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gronberg BH, Bremnes RM, Flotten O et al (2009) Phase III study by the Norwegian Lung Cancer Study Group: pemetrexed plus carboplatin compared with gemcitabine plus carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 27:3217–3224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hanna N, Shepherd FA, Fossella FV et al (2004) Randomized phase III trial of pemetrexed versus docetaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 22:1589–1597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Helsing M, Bergman B, Thaning L et al (1998) Quality of life and survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer receiving supportive care plus chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide or supportive care only. A multicentre randomised phase III trial. Joint Lung Cancer Study Group. Eur J Cancer 34(7):1036–1044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Herndon JE, Fleishman S, Kosty MP et al (1997) A longitudinal study of quality of life in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Cancer and Leukaemia Group B (CALGB) 8931. Control Clin Trials 18:286–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hollen PJ, Gralla RJ (1996) Comparison of instruments for measuring quality of life in patients with lung cancer. Semin Oncol 23(suppl 5):31–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hollen PJ, Gralla RJ, Kriss MG et al (1993) Quality of life assessment in individuals with lung cancer: testing the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS). Eur J Cancer 29A(suppl 1):S51–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Joyce CRB (1994) Health status and quality of life: which matters to the patient? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 23(suppl 3):26–33Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kelly K, Crowley J, Bunn PA Jr et al (2001) Randomized phase III trial of paclitaxel plus carboplatin versus vinorelbine plus cisplatin in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group trial. J Clin Oncol 19:3210–3218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kim KJ, Li B, Winer J et al (1993) Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis suppresses tumour growth in vivo. Nature 362:841–844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kosmidis P, Mylonakis N, Nicolaides C et al (2002) Paclitaxel plus carboplatin versus gemcitabine plus paclitaxel in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase III randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 20:3578–3585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kubota K, Watanabe K, Kunitoh H et al (2004) Phase III randomized trial of docetaxel plus cisplatin versus vindesine plus cisplatin in patients with stage IV non small cell lung cancer: the Japanese Taxotere Lung Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 22:254–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Laack E, Dickgreber N, Muller T et al (2004) Randomized phase III study of gemcitabine and vinorelbine versus gemcitabine, vinorelbine, and cisplatin in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: from the German and Swiss Lung Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 22:2348–2356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Langer CJ, Leighton JC, Comis RL et al (1995) Paclitaxel and carboplatin in combination in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a phase II toxicity, response and survival analysis. J Clin Oncol 13:1860–1870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Langer CJ, Manolo J, Bernardo P et al (2002) Cisplatin based therapy for elderly patients with advanced NSCLC: implications of Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group 5592, a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 94:173–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Le Chevalier T, Pujol JL, Douillard JY et al (1994) A three arm trial of vinorelbine (Navelbine) plus cisplatin, vindesine plus cisplatin, and single agent vinorelbine in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: an expanded analysis. Semin Oncol 21:28–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Leplege A, Hunt S (1997) The problem of quality of life in medicine. JAMA 278:47–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lillenbaum RC, Chen CS, Chidiac T et al (2005) Phase II randomized trial of vinorelbine and gemcitabine versus carboplatin and paclitaxel in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol 16:97–101Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ma CX, Nair S, Thomas S et al (2005) Randomized phase II trial of three schedules of pemetrexed and gemcitabine as front line therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 25:5929–5937Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Manegold G, Bergman B, Chemaissani A et al (1997) Single agent gemcitabine versus cisplatin-etoposide: early results of a randomized phase II study in locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Oncol 8:525–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Marino P, Pampallona S, Preatoni A et al (1994) Chemotherapy vs supportive care in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: results of a meta-analysis of the literature. Chest 106(3):861–865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Maruyama R, Nishiwaki Y, Tamura T et al (2008) Phase III study, V-15-32, of gefitinib versus docetaxel in previously treated Japanese patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 26:4244–4252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Moinpour CM, Lyons B, Grevstad PK et al (2002) Quality of life in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: results of a Southwest Oncology Group randomised trial. Qual Life Res 11:115–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mok T, Wu Y, Thongprasert S et al (2009) Gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med 361:947–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Montazeri A, Gillis CR, McEwen J (1998) Quality of life in patients with lung cancer: a review of literature from 1970–1995. Chest 113:467–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Collaborative Group (1995) Chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis using updated data on individual patients from 52 randomised clinical trials. BMJ 311(7010):899–909Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    O’Boyle CA (1994) The schedule for the evaluation of individual quality of life. Int J Ment Health 23:3–23Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    O’Boyle CA, Waldron D (1997) Quality of life issues in palliative medicine. J Neurol 224(suppl 4):18–25Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Olschewski M, Schulgen G, Schumacher M et al (1994) Quality of life assessment in clinical cancer research. Br J Cancer 70:1–5PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Osoba D (1994) Lessons learned from measuring health-related quality of life in oncology. J Clin Oncol 12:608–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Osoba D (1996) Quality of life assessment in palliative medicine. Prog Palliat Care 4:167–168, editorialGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Paccagnella A, Favaretto A, Oniga F et al (2004) Cisplatin versus carboplatin in combination with mitomycin and vinblastine in advanced non small cell lung cancer. A multicenter, randomized phase III trial. Lung Cancer 43:83–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Parkin DM, Pisani P, Ferlay J (1993) Estimation of the worldwide incidence of 18 major cancers in 1985. Int J Cancer 54:594–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Patrick DL, Erickson P (1993) Assessing health-related quality of life for clinical decision-making. In: Walker SR, Rosser RM (eds) Quality of life assessment: key issues for the 1990s. Kluwer Academic, London, pp 11–64Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Patrick DL, Erickson P (1993) Health status and health policy: allocating resources to health care. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 3–26Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pavelic K, Banjac Z, Pavelic J et al (1993) Evidence for a role of EGF receptor in the progression of human lung carcinoma. Anticancer Res 13:1133–1137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Perng RP, Chen YM, Ming-Liu J et al (1997) Gemcitabine versus the combination of cisplatin and etoposide in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer in a phase II randomized study. J Clin Oncol 15:2097–2102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Presant CA (1984) Quality of life in cancer patients: who measures what? Am J Clin Oncol 7:571–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ranson M, Davidson N, Nicholson M et al (2000) Randomized trial of paclitaxel plus supportive care versus supportive care for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 92:1074–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Richards T (1998) Partnership with patients. BMJ 316:85–86, editorialPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rosell R, Gatzmeier U, Betticher DC et al (2002) Phase III randomized trial comparing paclitaxel / carboplatin with paclitaxel / cisplatin in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer: a co-operative multinational trial. Ann Oncol 13:1539–1549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Roszkowski K, Pluzanska A, Krzakowski M et al (2000) Multicenter, randomized, phase III study of docetaxel plus best supportive care versus best supportive care in chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic or non-resectable localized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung Cancer 27:145–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rudd RM, Gower NH, Spiro SG et al (2005) Gemcitabine plus carboplatin versus mitomycin, ifosfamide, and cisplatin in patients with stage IIIB or IV non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase III randomized study of the London Lung Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 23:142–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sandler A, Ettinger DS (1999) Gemcitabine; Single agent and combination therapy in non-small cell lung cancer. Oncologist 4:241–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sandler AB, Ansari R, McClean J et al (1995) Gemcitabine plus cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer: a phase II study. Eur J Cancer 31 A(suppl 5):S225Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sandler A, Gray R, Perry MC et al (2006) Paclitaxel-carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 355:2542–2550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schiller JH, Harrington D, Belani CP et al (2002) Comparison of four chemotherapy regimens for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 346:92–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Schipper H, Clinch J, McMurray A et al (1984) Measuring the quality of life of cancer patients: the Functional Living Index-Cancer: development and validation. J Clin Oncol 2:472–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Schuette W, Nagel S, Blakenburg T et al (2005) Phase III study of second-line chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with weekly compared with 3-weekly docetaxel. J Clin Oncol 23:8389–8395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sederholm C, Hillerdal G, Lamberg K et al (2005) Phase III trial of gemcitabine plus carboplatin versus single-agent gemcitabine in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: the Swedish Lung Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 23:8380–8388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Shepherd FA, Dancey J, Ramlau R et al (2000) Prospective randomized trial of docetaxel versus best supportive care in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 19:2095–2103Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Shepherd FA, Dancey J, Arnold A et al (2001) Phase II study of pemetrexed disodium, a multitargeted antifolate, and cisplatin as first-line therapy in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung carcinoma: a study of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Cancer 92:595–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Shepherd FA, Rodrigues PJ, Ciuleanu T et al (2005) Erlotinib in previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 353:123–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Silvestri G, Pritchard R, Welch G (1998) Preferences for chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC: descriptive study based on scripted interviews. BMJ 317:771–775PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Slevin ML, Plant H, Lynch D et al (1988) Who should measure quality of life, the doctor or the patient ? Br J Cancer 57:109–112PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Smit EF, van Meerbeeck PAM, Lianes P et al (2003) Three-arm randomized study of two cisplatin-based regimens and paclitaxel and gemcitabine in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase III trial of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lung Group—EORTC 08975. J Clin Oncol 21:3909–3917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Smith IE, O’Brien MER, Talbot DC et al (2001) Duration of chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomized trial of three versus six courses of mitomycin, vinblastine and cisplatin. J Clin Oncol 19:1336–1343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Socinski MA, Schell MJ, Peterman A et al (2002) Phase III trial comparing a defined duration of therapy versus continuous therapy followed by second-line therapy in advanced-stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 20:1335–1343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Souquet PJ, Chauvin F, Boissel JP et al (1993) Polychemotherapy in advanced non small cell lung cancer: a meta analysis. Lancet 342(8862):19–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Spilker B (ed) (1996) Quality of life and pharmacoeconomics in clinical trials (ed 2). Raven, New York, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Spiro SG, Rudd RM, Souhami RL et al (2004) Chemotherapy versus supportive care in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: improved survival without detriment to quality of life. Thorax 59:828–836PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Spitzer WO, Dobson AJ, Hall J et al (1981) Measuring quality of life of cancer patients: a concise QL-index for use by physicians. J Chronic Dis 34:585–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Temel J, Greer J, Muzikansky A et al (2010) Early palliative care for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 363:733–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Thatcher N, Chang A, Parikh P et al (2005) Gefitinib plus best supportive care in previously treated patients with refractory advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: results from a randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (Iressa Survival Evaluation in Lung Cancer). Lancet 366:1527–1537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    The Elderly Lung Cancer Vinorelbine Italian Study Group (1999) Effects of vinorelbine on quality of life and survival of elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 91:66–72Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Thongprasert S, Sanguanmitra P, Juthapan W et al (1999) Relationship between quality of life and clinical outcomes in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: best supportive care (BSC) versus BSC plus chemotherapy. Lung Cancer 24(1):17–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Vansteenkiste J, Vandebroek J, Nackaerts K et al (2001) Clinical-benefit response in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicentre prospective randomized phase III study of single agent gemcitabine versus cisplatin-vindesine. Ann Oncol 12:1221–1230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Varricchio CG, McCabe MS, Trimble E et al (1996) Quality of life in cancer clinical trials. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 20:vii–viiiPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Volm M, Rittgen W, Drings P (1998) Prognostic value of ERBB-1, VEGF, cyclin A, FOS, JUN and MYC in patients with squamous cell lung carcinomas. Br J Cancer 77:663–669PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    von Plessen C, Bergman B, Andresen O et al (2006) Palliative chemotherapy beyond three courses conveys no survival or consistent quality of life benefits in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer 95:966–973Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Waldron D, O’Boyle CA (1998) Individual quality of life in palliative care. In: Joyce CRB, O’Boyle CA, McGee H (eds) Individual quality of life approaches to conceptualisation and assessment in health. Harwood Academic, Reading, pp 197–211Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Waldron DW, O’Boyle CA, Kearney ML et al (1999) Quality-of-life measurement in advanced cancer: assessing the individual. J Clin Oncol 17:3603–3611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Zigmond AS, Snaith RP (1983) The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 67:361–370PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eileen Mannion
    • 1
  • J. J. Gilmartin
    • 2
  • Paul Donnellan
    • 3
  • Maccon Keane
    • 3
  • Dympna Waldron
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Palliative MedicineGalway University HospitalGalwayIreland
  2. 2.Department of Respiratory MedicineGalway University HospitalGalwayIreland
  3. 3.Department of Medical OncologyGalway University HospitalGalwayIreland

Personalised recommendations