Supportive Care in Cancer

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 259–267 | Cite as

The multiple oral presentations of multiple myeloma

  • Richard C. Cardoso
  • Peter J. Gerngross
  • Theresa M. Hofstede
  • Donna M. Weber
  • Mark S. Chambers
Original Article



The purpose of this case series is to show the varied oral presentations of multiple myeloma, illustrating the importance of carefully surveying the oral cavity for suspicious lesions that could be indicative of palpable disease and/or recurrence. The diagnostic criteria and prognostic features for multiple myeloma were also reviewed.

Case series summary

This report focuses on five patients with myeloma manifestations involving the oral cavity, in which the oral presentation of multiple myeloma was an early indication of disease relapse. Although the clinical presentation may be variable, the majority of patients will develop lytic bone lesions and less commonly, extramedullary involvement during the course of their disease.


The presentation of myeloma can be varied and the oral presentation, although rare, may be the sole manifestation or part of a group of signs of disease progression. Clinical presentations of patients with myelomatous lesions can mimic common dental pathologies, which then, in turn, can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment.


As members of an interdisciplinary oncology team, it is essential to be familiar with oral manifestations of multiple myeloma and proper diagnostic/biopsy techniques in order to avoid misdiagnosis and treatment delays.


Oral manifestations Multiple myeloma Extramedullary involvement Oral screening 


Conflict of interest

None of the authors has any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence their work.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard C. Cardoso
    • 1
  • Peter J. Gerngross
    • 2
  • Theresa M. Hofstede
    • 1
  • Donna M. Weber
    • 3
  • Mark S. Chambers
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Section of Oral Oncology, Department of Head and Neck SurgeryThe University of Texas—M.D. Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Maxillofacial Prosthodontics, Dental ServiceMichael E. DeBakey VA Medical CenterHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Lymphoma/MyelomaThe University of Texas—M.D. Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Head and Neck SurgeryThe University of Texas—M.D. Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

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