Supportive Care in Cancer

, Volume 20, Issue 11, pp 2829–2836

Prospective observational Italian study on palliative sedation in two hospice settings: differences in casemixes and clinical care

  • Marco Maltoni
  • Guido Miccinesi
  • Piero Morino
  • Emanuela Scarpi
  • Francesco Bulli
  • Francesca Martini
  • Filippo Canzani
  • Monia Dall’Agata
  • Eugenio Paci
  • Dino Amadori
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00520-012-1407-x

Cite this article as:
Maltoni, M., Miccinesi, G., Morino, P. et al. Support Care Cancer (2012) 20: 2829. doi:10.1007/s00520-012-1407-x

Abstract

Purpose

Palliative sedation (PS) has been defined as the use of sedative medications to relieve intolerable suffering from refractory symptoms by a reduction in patient consciousness. It is sometimes necessary in end-of-life care when patients present refractory symptoms. We investigated PS for refractory symptoms in different hospice casemixes in order to (1) assess clinical decision-making, (2) monitor the practice of PS, and (3) examine the impact of PS on survival.

Methods

This observational longitudinal cohort study was conducted over a period of 9 months on 327 patients consecutively admitted to two 11-bed Italian hospices (A and B) with different casemixes in terms of median patient age (hospice A, 66 years vs. hospice B, 73 years; P = 0.005), mean duration of hospice stay (hospice A, 13.5 days vs. hospice B, 18.3 days; P = 0.005), and death rate (hospice A, 57.2% vs. hospice B, 89.9%; P < 0.0001). PS was monitored using the Richmond Agitation–Sedation Scale (RASS). Sedated patients constituted 22% of the total admissions and 31.9% of deceased patients, which did not prove to be significantly different in the two hospices after adjustment for casemix.

Results

Patient involvement in clinical decision-making about sedation was significantly higher in hospice B (59.3% vs. 24.4%; P = 0.007). Family involvement was 100% in both hospices. The maximum level of sedation (RASS, −5) was necessary in only 58.3% of sedated patients. Average duration of sedation was similar in the two hospices (32.2 h [range, 2.5–253.0]). Overall survival in sedated and nonsedated patients was superimposable, with a trend in favor of sedated patients.

Conclusions

PS represents a highly reproducible clinical intervention with its own indications, assessment methodologies, procedures, and results. It does not have a detrimental effect on survival.

Keywords

Palliative sedation Advanced cancer Survival End-of-life care Hospice casemix 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Maltoni
    • 1
  • Guido Miccinesi
    • 2
    • 6
  • Piero Morino
    • 3
  • Emanuela Scarpi
    • 4
  • Francesco Bulli
    • 2
  • Francesca Martini
    • 5
  • Filippo Canzani
    • 3
  • Monia Dall’Agata
    • 4
  • Eugenio Paci
    • 2
  • Dino Amadori
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical OncologyIstituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (I.R.S.T.)MeldolaItaly
  2. 2.Clinical and Descriptive Epidemiology UnitIstituto per lo Studio e la Prevenzione Oncologica (ISPO)FlorenceItaly
  3. 3.Convento delle Oblate HospiceAzienda SanitariaFlorenceItaly
  4. 4.Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical TrialsI.R.S.T.MeldolaItaly
  5. 5.Palliative Care UnitForlimpopoli HospitalForlimpopoliItaly
  6. 6.Clinical and Descriptive Epidemiology UnitCancer Prevention and Research Institute (ISPO)FlorenceItaly

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